THE FOLLOWING TEXTS ARE FROM THE BOOK “The Buddhist Teaching of Totality – The Philosophy of Hwa Yen Buddhism” WRITTEN BY Garma C. C. Chang AND PUBLISHED BY MOTILAL BANARSIDASS PUBLISHERS, FIRST INDIAN EDITION: DELHI, 1992. COPYRIGHT 1971 BY THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY. TEXTS: PP. 208-230, FOOTNOTES: P. 240. (comments by the translator have been omitted)
On The Meditation of Dharmadhātu1 by Master Tu Shun
The Meditation observes: The practice of viewing the great Dharmadhātu in the vast Buddha realm contains three branches of Meditations: Meditation on the True Voidness; Meditation on the Non-Obstruction of Li [noumenon] against Shih [phenomenon]; Meditation on the All-Embracing Totality.
I. Meditation on the True Voidness.
The Meditation observes: To illustrate our first topic, Meditation on the True Voidness, four observations in ten principles are to be considered. The four observations are: the observation of reducing form into Voidness; the observation of identifying Voidness with form; the observation of the Non-Obstruction of form and Voidness; the observation of absolute dissolution and non-attachment.
A. The observation of reducing form into Voidness.
The Meditation observes:2 To explain the first, the observation of reducing form [or matter] into Voidness, four reasonings are given.
1. Form is not void because it is void. What does this mean?3 It means that to say form is not Void is to stress the fact that form is not a void-of-annihilation, but a true void in its total essence.
2. Form is not void because it is void. What does this mean? It means that inasmuch as neither yellow nor green is exactly the principle of Voidness, we say that form is not void. However, [from the viewpoint of Transcendental Truth,] the yellow or the green have no substance – they are nothing but Voidness; therefore we say [again] that they are Voidness. [On the other hand, one should also notice] that the Voidness of the yellow and green is different from the yellow and green themselves; therefore we say they are not exactly the Voidness.
3. Form is not void because it is void. What does this mean? It means that inasmuch as there is no form that can be traced in the [Absolute] Voidness, we say that it is not void. [However, from the viewpoint that] form is reduced into Voidness, we say that it is void. When form is reduced into Voidness, no form whatsoever will exist in the Voidness; [under this condition,] it simply makes no sense to speak of the identity or difference of form and Voidness. That is why we say here that since form is void [when it is reduced into the Voidness], form is not void – [because no mutual identity is possible in this case.]
COMMENT: Ch'êng Kuan comments on the above arguments.4
Since there is no form in the [Absolute] Voidness, form cannot be the Voidness itself, yet apart from form, there is no other truth; hence, the Voidness cannot be apart from the form. True Voidness is, therefore, neither identical nor different from form.
... But there are men who cherish the idea that Voidness exists outside of form and is essentially different from it ... so it is pointed out here that since there is no trace of form whatsoever existing in the [True] Voidness, how can there be a Voidness that exists face to .face with form? Again, when form is reduced [into the Voidness], no substance is seen; therefore, we say, it is void. How would it be possible then to envision a Voidness that exists outside of form [making up a contrasting pair]? This i s why the sages of ancient times said:
When Form has gone
No Void is left.
Voidness has no edge
And no abiding.
4. Form is void. Why? Because all forms should, on no account, be different from True Voidness. Since all forms are without substance [or Selfhood] , they are all void. If form [rūpa] is void, so are all the other dharmas. Contemplate on this.
B. The observation of identifying Voidness with form.
Now, to explain the second of the four observations, that of identifying Voidness with form. This again has four headings.
1. Voidness is not form because Voidness is form. What does this mean? It means that the voidness-of-annihilation is not form; therefore we say [Voidness] is not form. Nevertheless, the True Voidness should on no account be different from form; therefore we say Voidness is form. Because the True Voidness is identical with form, the voidness-of-annihilation cannot be identical with form.
2. Voidness is not form because Voidness is form. What does this mean? It means that [from a certain viewpoint] since the principle of Voidness as such is not the green or the yellow themselves, we say Voidness is not form. However, the True Voidness of non-green and non-yellow should on no account be different from the green and the yellow;
therefore we say Voidness is form. In short, we either claim that Voidness is form, or is not form on the basis of that which is not different from or not identical with the green and the yellow.
3. Voidness is not form because Voidness is form. What does this mean? This means that Voidness is not that which acts [neng i] but that which is to be acted upon [so i]. In this sense we say that Voidness is not form. [However, from the viewpoint that] Voidness must function [as the ground up on which] form acts [and thus form and Voidness are always co-existing and mutually-identical] we say that Voidness is form. In other words, Voidness is not form, because it is the object [so i], and Voidness is form, also because it is the object [so i] when viewed as a function. This is why we say that because Voidness is not form, therefore Voidness is form.
4. Voidness is form. Why? Because True Voidness should on no account be different from form, and this truth of the selflessness-of-dharmas [dharmanairātmya] is not annihilatory; therefore we say that Voidness is form. If form/Voidness is so, all other dharmas should also be so. Contemplate on this.
C. The observation of the Non-Obstruction of form and Voidness.
Now, the third observation, that of the Non-Obstruction of form and Voidness. The entire body of form is not different from Voidness – it is actually the form-exhaustion Voidness. Without abolishing form as such, the Voidness appears. The Voidness per se is not different from form – it is actually the Void-exhaustion form. Although form and Voidness arc exactly identical, the Voidness does not, on account of this fact, hide itself from appearing. Therefore, when a Bodhisattva observes form, he sees Voidness, and when he observes Voidness, he sees the form. This is the Dharma-At-Onement, which is without the slightest hindrance or obstruction. Contemplate on this and you will understand.
[Comment: Tsung Mi comments on this paragraph.5
Although the term form/Voidness is used here, the author's original intention was [to stress the point of] reducing forms into the Voidness. Because all forms are without a speck of substance, both their appearances and names are delusory. The practice of this Meditation ought to be focused on this direction. This is witnessed in the first and second sentences in the text where form is used as the subject: "... it is actually the form-exhaustion Voidness. Without abolishing form as such, the Voidness appears." But in the next sentence where Voidness is used as the subject, there is no parallel proclaiming that form appears. Instead, the assertion is that "Although form and Voidness are exactly identical, the Voidness does not, on account of this fact, hide itself from appearing." Therefore, the focus of this Meditation is on the True Voidness. It could not be called "The Meditation on the True Voidness and Illusory forms."]
D. The observation of absolute dissolution and non-attachment.
Now, the fourth and last observation, that of absolute dissolution and non-attachment. The True Voidness under [correct] observation cannot be said to be identical with or different from form. Nor can it be said to be identical with or different from the Void. Nothing is accepted here, nor is this non-acceptance accepted; even this statement itself is not accepted. This absolute negation and non-attachment [of the beyond] is beyond words and understanding. It is a “realm of experience and realization.” Why? Because if any ideas or thoughts should arise, they would violate the Dharma nature and thus go astray.
[Comment: Tsung Mi comments on this:6
By practicing these four observations, four defects can be avoided.
The first observation of reducing all forms into Voidness [can] free [us] from the defect of accretion.
The second observation of identifying Voidness with form [can] free [us] from the defects of both accretion and reduction.
The third observation of the Non-Obstruction of form and Voidness stresses the negation of both being and non-being, thus it [can] free [us] from the defect of all playwords.
In the fourth observation of absolute dissolution and non-attachment, even the concept of the unity of both form and Voidness is negated, thus it can free [us] from the defect of all contradictions.
When these four defects are eschewed, the hundred flaws and mistakes will [automatically] disappear. This is indeed the essence of the eight collections of Prajñāpāramitā scriptures and the consummation of all teachings in the Great Vehicle.]
II. Meditation on the Non-Obstruction of Li [Noumenon] against Shih [Phenomenon].
Ten principles are set forth here to elucidate both the fusion and dissolving of Li and Shih, their co-existence and extinction, co-operation and conflict.
[Comment: Ch'êng Kuan comments on this:7
In the previous Meditation, on the Voidness of all forms, Voidness represents the Li and form represents the Shih. Why is it not then called the Meditation on the Non-Obstruction of Li and Shih? There are four reasons for this.
First, in the previous Meditation, although the fact of form, or Shih, is dealt with, the stress is on establishing the principle [Li] of Voidness, and the Non- Obstruction between form and Voidness. It is therefore [primarily] a Meditation on the True Voidness.
Second, in the previous Meditation, the aspect of the Voidness is explained, but the aspect of the wondrous dynamic becoming [yu] of Tathatā is not discussed.
Third, [the Meditation] of [absolute] dissolution and non-attachment negates both Shih and Li.
Fourth, the previous Meditation does not reveal the sphere of Non- Obstruction which evinces the action of non-action, form without form, all "Shihs" and "Lis" simultaneously open to view without hindrances, a realm of fusion of all antitheses.
Because of these four reasons, the previous Meditation cannot be called the Non Obstruction of Shih and Li. ...
Ten principles are set forth here to unite Shih and Li into one [inseparable whole]. Just as a large furnace can melt all metals and transform them into the shapes of various images, Li can also dissolve all Shihs. The harmonious fusion of Li and Shih brings into the open a double non-duality. All ten principles set forth here are meant to elucidate this principle of Non-Obstruction. ...
The co-existence of Li and Shih is elucidated in principles nine and ten, because they assert the fact that the true Li is not Shih, and Shih is not Li. Here both Li and Shih maintain their [independent] existences.
The extinguishment of Li and Shih is elucidated by principles seven and eight. They both assert that Shih is Li and Li is Shih. This obliteration of self for the fusion with others simultaneously dissolves both Li and Shih.
The conflict between Li and Shih is elucidated in principles five and six. When the true Li annuls Shih, we see the fact that Li contradicts Shih, and when Shih conceals Li, we see that Shih also contradicts Li.
The co-operation between Li and Shih is elucidated by principles three and four. Here we see that it is based on Li that all Shihs are established. This emphasizes the fact that Li accommodates or co-operates with Shih. On the other hand, the Shih can reflect or demonstrate Li, this is the evidence that Shih also co-
operates with Li. These two observations actually contain the gist of all ten principles. The doctrine of the Non-Obstruction of Li and Shih is therefore established.]
1. The principle that Li [must] embrace Shih. Li, the law that extends everywhere, has no boundaries or limitations, but Shih, the objects that are embraced [by Li], has boundaries and limitations. In each and every Shih, the Li spreads all over without omission or deficiency. Why? Because the truth of Li is indivisible. Thus, each and every minute atom absorbs and embraces the infinite truth of Li in a perfect and complete manner.
2. The principle that Shih [must] embrace Li. Shih, the matter [or event] that embraces, has boundaries and limitations, and Li, the truth that is embraced [by things], has no boundaries or limitations. Yet this limited Shih is completely identical, not partially identical, with Li. Why? Because the Shih has no substance – it is the selfsame Li. Therefore, without causing the slightest damage to itself, an atom can embrace the whole universe. If one atom is so, all other dharmas should also be so. Contemplate on this.
This all-embracing principle is beyond [the comprehension of] the ordinary mind and is difficult to understand. It cannot be depicted [properly] by means of any metaphor of this world. [But being compelled now to illustrate the subject, the following metaphor is used.]
The entire ocean is [embodied] in one wave, yet the ocean does not shrink. A small wave includes the great ocean, and yet the wave does not expand. Though the ocean simultaneously extends itself to all waves, it does not by this fact diversify itself; and though all waves simultaneously inc1ude the great ocean, they are not one. When the great ocean embraces one wave, nothing hinders it from embracing all other waves with its whole body When one wave includes the great ocean, all other waves also include the ocean in its entirety. There is no obstruction whatsoever between them. Contemplate on this.
[At this juncture] one raises [the following] question: "If the Li embraces an atom with its total body, why then is it not small? If the Li does not reduce itself to the same size as the atom, how can you say that its total body embraces the atom? Furthermore, when an atom includes the nature of Li, why is it not large? If the atom does not equal Li and thus become great and vast, how can it embrace the nature of Li? This reasoning is self-contradictory and unreasonable."
Answer: Setting Li and shih face to face, they are neither identical nor different; thus they can [each] totally include [the other], yet not impair their respective positions.
First, to see Shih from the position of Li, four principles are found. a. Because the reality of Li does not differ from Shih, its totality dwells in each Shih. b. Because the reality of Li and Shih are not identical, the principle of Li always stretches to infinity. c. Because the non-identity is the non-difference itself, boundless Li is completely included in an atom. d. Because the non-difference is the non-identity itself, the one atom's Li is boundless and without division.
Second. to see Li from the position of Shih, four principles are also found. a. Because Shih and Li are not different, an atom includes the nature of Li in full. b. Because Shih and Li are not identical, an atom is not impaired. c. Because the non-identity is the selfsame non-difference, a small atom embraces the infinite reality of Li. d. Because the non-difference is the selfsame non-identity, an atom is not expanded when it includes the boundless reality of Li. Contemplate on this.
[Here one may raise an objection by asking,] "When boundless Li embraces an atom, do we find, or not find, the reality of Li in other atoms [at the same time]? If we do, then it means that Li exists outside the atom, hence Li is not totally [engaged in] embracing an atom. On the other hand, if the reality of Li is not found outside the atom, then you cannot say that Li embraces all things. Hence, your argument is self-contradictory."
Answer: Because the nature of Li is omnipresent, harmonious, and fusing,8 and because innumerable things [Shih] are [mutually] non-obstructive, therefore the [truth of Totality] exists both inside and outside [of Li and Shih] without obstruction or impediment. [To elaborate on this,] four reasons are given [from the viewpoint of both inside and outside of Li and Shih].
First, from the stand point of Li: a. While Li embraces all things with its total body, it by no means impedes the existence of this total body in one atom. Therefore, to be outside is to be inside. b. While the total body [of Li] exists in one atom, it does not impede the existence of this total body in other things. Therefore, to be inside is to be outside. c. The nature of non-duality is omnipresent; therefore it is outside and it is also inside. d. The nature of non-duality is "beyond all;" therefore it is neither outside nor inside.
The first three reasons are given to illustrate the non-difference of Li from all Shih, the last to illustrate Li's non-identity with Shih. It is because Li is neither identical nor different from Shih, that outside and inside are seen without obstructions.
Second, from the standpoint of Shih: a. When one thing [Shih] includes Li with its total body, it does not impede all other things from including Li in its entirety. b. When all things embrace Li, they do not impede one atom from embracing [Li] in full. Therefore, to exist outside is to exist inside. c. Because all things embrace [Li] simultaneously in each and every manner, therefore all things are completely inside (Li) and at the same time outside (Li), without any obstruction. d. Because all different things do not impair one another, by setting one against the other, it is neither within nor without. Contemplate on this.
3. The production of Shih must rely on Li. This means that Shih has no other essence [than Li]; it is because of Li that Shih can be established, for all causations are devoid of self-nature (niḥsvabhāva). It is also because of this No-Selfhood that all things come into being. The waves push the water and make it move, and owing to the contrast of water and wave, motion is produced. By the same token, it is because of the Buddha-matrix [Tathāgata-garbha] that all dharmas can come into being. Contemplate on this.
4. Through Shih the Li is illustrated. When Shih grasps Li, Shih is emptied and Li is substantiated; and because the Shih is emptied, the Li that "dwells" in the total Shih vividly manifests itself, as when the form of a wave is annulled, the body of the water appears naked. Contemplate on this.
5. Through Li the Shih is annulled. When Shih grasps Li and makes Li emerge, the form of Shih is annulled, and the only thing that clearly and equally appears is the sole and true Li. Beyond the true Li, not a single piece of Shih can be found. When the water annuls the waves, not one wave remains. [In other words, the reasoning here is] to keep the water in order to exhaust the waves [or, to disclose the water and conceal the waves].
6. The Shih can hide the Li. The True Li follows and establishes causal events. However, since these causal events are against Li, the result is that only the events appear, but the Li does not appear. Similarly, when water becomes waves, the aspect of motion appears while the aspect of stillness does not appear at all. The Sūtra says, "The Dharmakāya that circles and wanders in the five lokas is called a sentient being." Hence, whenever a sentient being appears, the Dharmakāya always [follows] but does not [necessarily] manifest itself.
7. The Tme Li is Shih itself. If a Li is true, it should never be outside of Shih. There are two reasons for this. First, because of the principle of dharmanairātmya [the emptiness-of-selfhood-of-all-things]. Second, because Shih must depend on Li, [Shih] itself is but hollow without any substance. Therefore, only if the Li is identical with Shih through and through can it be considered to be the True Li. [Taking again the parable of water and waves:] since the water is the waves themselves, no motion can be excluded from wetness. This is why we say that the water itself is the waves. Contemplate on this.
8. Things and events [Shih Fa] themselves are Li. All things and events of dependent-arising are devoid of Selfhood, hence they are identical with reality [Li] through and through. Therefore, a sentient being is Suchness per se without [going through] annihilation. Similarly, when the waves are in motion they are exactly identical with water at the same time, and there is no difference between them whatsoever.
9. The True Li is not Shih. The Li that is identical with Shih is not Shih as such. This is because the true Li is different from the illusory, and the real is different from the unreal; also that which is depended upon [object, so i] is different from that which depends [subject, neng i]. Likewise, the water that is identical with waves is not waves as such, for motion and wetness are different.
10. Things and events [Shih Fa] are not Li. The Shih – that which is embodied in the total Li – is not always the Li as such, because its form and nature are different, and because that which depends is not that which is depended upon. Although the total body of [Shih] is in the Li, things and events can also vividly appear. Likewise, the waves – that which is totally embodied in water – are not always the water, for the meaning of motion is different from that of wetness.
The above ten principles all consist in dependent-arising. To see Shih from the standpoint of Li, we find forming [cheng] as well as annulling [huai], unification [ho] as well as separation [li]. To see Li from the standpoint of Shih, we find revealing [hsien] as well as concealing [yin], one as well as many. [In the great Totality, therefore,] contradiction and agreement all become harmonious with no impediment and no obstruction, and all in all arise simultaneously. One should meditate on this deeply to let the "view" clearly appear. This is called the Meditation of the Harmony and Non-Obstruction of Li and Shih.
III. Meditation on the All-Embracing Totality. [This is also the wondrous Shih-shih Wu-ai Dharmadhātu.]
Because Shih is identical with the fusing Li, it embraces all without obstructions and penetrates into and interfuses with all in a natural and spontaneous manner. To illustrate this point, ten principles are set forth as follows.
1. The principle that Li equals Shih. Since Shih is vacuous, all its forms come to exhaustion; and since the essence of Li is real, the body of Li completely comes into view. Therefore, Shih is not a Shih other than the total Li. For this reason, when a Bodhisattva sees Shih, he also sees Li. However, [in this principle] the Shih should not be considered to be the Li per se.
2. The principle that Shih equals Li. Since Shih is not different from Li, it "follows" Li and is omnipresent in all places. As a result, one atom is able to embrace the entire universe. [Again,] when the total body of the universe is omnipresent in all dharmas, this one atom, like Li, is also omnipresent in all dharmas. If one atom is so, all other dharmas should also be so.
3. The principle that Shih includes the truth of the Non-Obstruction of Li and Shih. Since Shih Fa and Li are not one, the Shih remains as it is, and yet embraces all. For an example, the form of one atom does not expand, and yet it can embrace the infinite universes. This is because all the cosmoses are not separate [or different] from the Dharmadhātu, so they can all appear within one atom. If one atom is so, all the dharmas should also be so, since in their harmonious fusing Shih and Li arc neither identical nor different. This truth of the fusing of Li and Shih contains four principles:
First, one in one.
Second, all in one.
Third, one in all.
Fourth, all in all.
Each of these principles is supported by different and sufficient reasons. Contemplate on this.
4. The principle of the Non-Obstruction of the universal-whole and the local-spot. Since the non-identity of all Shih Fa and Li is the selfsame non-difference of all Shih Fa and Li, a Shih Fa departs not from its position and yet it extends into all atoms. [Again,] because identicalness is the difference itself, [an atom] stretches in all the ten directions, yet it does not move away from its local position. So it is far and also near, stretching and also remaining; there is no obstruction and no hindrance whatsoever.
5. The principle of the Non-Obstruction of the vast and the small. Since the non-identity of all Shih Fa and Li is the selfsame non-difference of all Shih Fa and Li, an atom is not impaired and yet it contains all the oceanlike universes in the ten directions. [Again,] because the identity is the difference itself, when an atom contains all the vast universes in the ten directions, it does not expand. This is to say that an atom is wide and also narrow, large and also small. There is no obstruction and no impediment.
6. The principle of the Non-Obstruction of [all] spreading and [all] containing. Because all-spreading is the selfsame all-containing, when an atom is set against all [universes] and spreads over all, it simultaneously contains all dharmas and includes them within its own [shell]. Again, because the all-containing is the selfsame all-spreading, an atom,
while containing all, spreads over all the different dharmas it contains. Thus, one atom spreading over all is the all spreading over one; it can contain and also enter; it simultaneously embraces all dharmas without any obstruction. Contemplate on this.
7. The principle of the Non-Obstruction of entering and including. Because entering the other dharma is the selfsame including the other dharma, when all dharmas are set against one dharma, the total entering-into-one on the part of all, enables the one, at the same time, to "return" to its own realm which includes all without any obstruction. Again, because including the other is the selfsame entering the other, when one dharma abides in all, it also enables all dharmas to remain in one simultaneously without any obstruction.
8. The principle of the Non-Obstruction of interpenetration. When one dharma is set against all, it has the including aspect as well as the entering aspect. This can be summarized under four headings:
First, one includes all and enters all.
Second, all includes one and enters one.
Third, one includes one and enters one.
Fourth, all includes all and enters all.
They interpenetrate one another without any obstruction.
9. The principle of the Non-Obstruction of mutual existing. Setting all dharmas against one, there are both the containing and the entering aspects. This again, has four headings:
First, [all] contain one to enter one.
Second, [all] contain all to enter one.
Third, [all] contain one to enter all.
Fourth, [all] contain all to enter all.
They simultaneously interpenetrate one another without obstruction or hindrance.
10. The principle of the Non-Obstruction of universal fusing. This is to say that all and one are simultaneous. Setting both against each other, each has the two-fold headings and four sentences just introduced. They fuse into each other in a total manner without any obstruction as seen in other aforementioned principles.
Those who practice this Meditation should make an effort to bring forth the round and illuminating insight in accordance with the practice and experience of [the great Hwa Yen Dharmadhātu] without obstruction or impediment. They should contemplate this in depth until this wondrous vision comes into view.
ON THE GOLDEN LION
In the Biographies of Outstanding Monks, the Sung version,9 we read:
Fa Tsang expounded the new translation of the Hwa Yen Sūtra for the Empress [Wu] Tsê-T'ien, but when he came to the doctrines of the ten mysteries, of Indra's net, the Ocean-Seal Samādhi, the convergence of the six forms and the realm of the universal perception, which constitute the general and specific principles and teachings in the various chapters of the Sūtra, the Empress became puzzled and uncertain. Thereupon, Fa Tsang pointed to the golden lion guarding the palace hall and used it as a metaphor to illustrate the teachings. The doctrines were thereby made extremely clear and easy to understand, and the Empress quickly carne to a full comprehension of the essence of the teaching. [This lecture was later written in prose] with ten principles to elaborate the general and specific theories, and it was called the Treatise On The Golden Lion.
Treatise On The Golden Lion10 Narrated by Monk Fa Tsang
[Ten observations are given here to illustrate the Hwa Yen Doctrine through the medium of the golden lion in Her Majesty's palace.]
1. To understand the principle of dependent-arising.
2. To distinguish form and Emptiness.
3. To summarize the three characters.
4. To reveal the non-existence of forms.
5. To explain the truth of the unborn.
6. To discuss the five doctrines.
7. To master the ten mysteries.
8. To embrace the six forms.
9. To achieve the perfect Wisdom of Bodhi.
10. To enter into Nirvāṇa.
1. To understand the principle of dependent-arising. This is to say that gold has no inherent nature of its own [i.e., no Svabhāva]. It is owing to the artistry of the skillful craftsman that the form of the lion arises. This arising is the result solely of the cause-conditioning; therefore it is called the arising through dependent-arising.
2. To distinguish form and Emptiness. This means that the form of the lion is unreal; what is real is the gold. Because the lion is not existent, and the body of the gold is not non-existent, they are called form/Emptiness. Furthermore, Emptiness does not have any mark of its own; it is through forms that [Emptiness] is revealed. This fact that Emptiness does not impede the illusory existence of forms is called form/Emptiness [sê-k'ung].
3. To summarize the three characters. Because of men's delusory perceptions, the lion [seems to] exist [in a concrete manner]; this is called the character of universal imagination [parikalpita]. The [manifestation] of the lion appears to be existing, this is called the character of dependency on others [paratantra]. The nature of gold never changes, this is called the character of perfect reality [pariniṣpanna].
4. To reveal the non-existence of forms. This is to say that when the gold completely takes in the lion, there is no form of lion to be found. This is called the non-existence of forms.
5. To explain the truth of the unborn. This means that at the very moment when [we see] the lion come into existence, it is actually the gold that comes into existence. There is nothing apart from the gold. Although the lion may come into and go out of existence, the substance of gold [in fact] never increases or decreases. This is called the truth of the unborn.
6. To discuss the five doctrines. The first: although the lion is a dharma produced through dependent-arising, it undergoes generation and destruction in each and every moment. [Since nothing in the phenomenal world endures,] no form of the lion can ever be found. This is called the teaching for the ignorant Śrāvakas [Hīnayāna].
The second: all things, being the product of dependent-arising, are devoid of Selfhood [Svabhāva], and in the final analysis, are nothing but Emptiness. This is called the preliminary teaching of Mahāyāna.
The third: although all things are Emptiness through and through, this does not impede the vivid appearance of the Māyā/becoming. All that which is of dependent-arising is fictitiously existent [and therefore it is truly void.] This co-existence of both being and non-being is called the final teaching of Mahāyāna.
The fourth: inasmuch as these two characters [that of Emptiness and that of form] mutually annul each other, they are both abolished. Here, no imaginings or false presuppositions exist; neither the concept of Emptiness nor the idea of existence retains any influence. [This is the sphere in which] the ideas of both being and non-being vanish. It is a realm that names and speech cannot reach. Here the mind rests without any attachment. This is called the instantaneous teaching of Mahāyāna.
The fifth: when all false feelings and wrong ideas are eliminated, and the true substance is revealed, everything becomes merged into one great mass. Great functions then arise in abundance, and whatever arises is absolutely true. The myriad manifestations, despite their variety, interpenetrate without confusion or disarray. The all is the one, for both are empty in substance. The one is the all, for cause and effect clearly manifest themselves [without fail]. In their power and functions [the one and the all] embrace each other. They spread out and roll up in utter freedom. This is called the Round Doctrine of the One Vehicle.
7. Mastering the ten mysteries The first: the gold and the lion are simultaneously established, all-perfect and complete. This is called the principle of simultaneous completeness.
The second: if the eyes of the lion take in the complete lion, then the all [the whole lion] is the eyes. If the ears take in the complete lion, then the all is the ears. If all the organs simultaneously take in the whole lion and all are complete in their possession, then each and every organ is "mixed" [involving others] as well as "pure" [being itself]. This is called the principle of full possession of the purity and mixture by the various storehouses.
The third: the gold and the lion both establish and include each other in harmony. There is no obstruction between one and many. [In this complete mutual inclusion,] the Li and the Shih, the one and the many, remain in their own positions. This is called the mutual inclusion and differentiation of one and many.
The fourth: all the parts of the lion, down to the tip of each and every hair, take in the whole lion in so far as they are all gold. Each and every one of them permeates the eyes of the lion. The eyes are the ears, the ears are the nose, the nose is the tongue, the tongue is the body. They all exist in total freedom without obstruction or impediment. This is called the mutual identity of all dharmas in freedom.
The fifth: if we look at the lion [as a lion], there is only lion and no gold. This is the disclosure of the lion but the concealment of the gold. If we look at the gold [as gold], there is only gold and no lion. This is the disclosure of the gold but the concealment of the lion. If we look at both simultaneously, they are both manifest or hidden. Being hidden they arc secret, being manifest they are revealed. This is called the simultaneous establishment of disclosure and concealment in secrecy.
The sixth: the gold and the lion may be manifest or hidden, one or many, pure or mixed, powerful or powerless. The one is the other. The principal and the companion interchange their radiance. Both Li and Shih simultaneously come into view. Being mutually compatible, they do not impede one another's existence. This is true even in the case of the minute and the subtle aspects and is called the peaceful co-existence.. of the minute and the subtle.
The seventh: in each of the lion's eyes, in its ears, limbs, and so forth, down to each and every single hair, there is a golden-lion. All the lions embraced by each and every hair simultaneously and instantaneously enter into one single hair. Thus in each and every hair there are an infinite number of lions. Furthermore, each and every hair containing infinite lions returns again to a single hair. The progression is infinite, like the jewels of Celestial Lord lndra's Net; a realm-embracing-realm ad infinitum is thus established, and it is called the realm of lndra's Net.
The eighth: the lion is spoken of in order to indicate men's ignorance; the gold is spoken of in order to reveal the true nature. By jointly discussing Li and Shih the Ālaya Consciousness is described so that a correct understanding [of the doctrine] may be reached. This is called the creation of understanding by revealing the Dharma through facts.
The ninth: the lion is a transient and conditioned thing [samskṛta dharma]; it arises and fades away at every moment, and each moment can be divided into past, present, and future. Each of these three periods again contains three sections of past, present, and future; therefore, altogether there are three-times-three units, thus forming the nine ages; grouping them together we have a total gate to the Dharma-truth. Although there are nine ages, each is different from the other, and yet their existences are established because of one another. They are harmoniously merged without the slightest obstruction in one identical [eternal] moment. This is called the different formation of separated dharmas in ten ages.
The tenth: the gold and the lion may be manifest or hidden, one or many, but they are both devoid of a Self-being [Svabhāva]. They manifest in various forms in accordance with the turning and transforming of the Mind. Whether we speak of them as Li or Shih, there is [the Mind] by which they are formed and exist. This is called the universal accomplishment through the projection of Mind-Only.
8. To embrace the Six Forms. The lion represents the character of wholeness, and the five organs, being various and different, represent diversity. The fact that they are all of one dependent-arising represents the character of universality. The eyes, ears, and so on remain in their own places and do not interfere with one another; this represents the character of particularity. The combination and convergence of the various organs makes up the lion; this represents the character of formation. The fact that each organ remains at its own position represents the character of disintegration.
9. To achieve the perfect Wisdom of Bodhi. "Bodhi," in the Chinese language, means the Way [Tao] or Enlightenment. This is to say that when we look at the lion, we see at once that all conditioned things, without going through the process of disintegration, are from the beginning in a state of quiescent non-existence. By being free from both clinging and detachment, one can follow this path into the ocean of omniscience [sarvajña]; therefore it is called the Way. To comprehend the fact that from the very no-beginning all illusions are in reality non-existent is called Enlightenment.
10. To enter info Nirvāṇa. When we look at the lion and the gold, the marks of both are exhausted. At this point, the passion-desires no longer arise even though beauty and ugliness are displayed before one's eyes. The mind is tranquil like the sea; all disturbing and delusory thoughts are extinguished, and there are no compulsions. One emerges from bondage and is free from all hindrances. The source of all suffering is forever cut off, and this is called entering into Nirvāṇa.
1 Taisho 1883, pp. 684-92.
2In the beginning of every paragraph, the text reads: "The Meditation observes" (kuan yüeh) , which is not only unnecessary but also confusing. Therefore, it is deleted in the translation after this point.
3Literally, "What are the reasons?" or "Why?" but judging from the context, it should be translated as "What does this mean?"
4Taisho 1883, p. 673
5Taisho 1884, p. 686.
6Taisho 1884, p. 687.
7Taisho 1883, p. 676.
8Here the three words omnipresent, harmonious and fusing are just the translation of the one Chinese word jung, which in this context is extremely hard to render accurately Taisho 1884. p. 688.
9Taisho 2061, p. 732.
10Taisho 1880, pp. 663-666.