The Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment (Yuanjue jing)
Translated by Charles Muller
September 17, 2003
Table of Contents
|1.||Mañjuśrī Bodhisattva 文殊師利|
|2.||Samantabhadra Bodhisattva 普賢菩薩|
|3.||Universal Vision Bodhisattva 普眼菩薩|
|4.||Vajragarbha Bodhisattva 金剛藏菩薩|
|5.||Maitreya Bodhisattva 彌勒菩薩|
|6.||Pure Wisdom Bodhisattva 淸淨慧菩薩|
|7.||Power and Virtue Unhindered Bodhisattva 威德自在菩薩|
|8.||Voice of Discernment Bodhisattva 辨音菩薩|
|9.||Purifier of all Karmic Hindrances Bodhisattva 淨諸業障菩薩|
|10.||Universal Enlightenment Bodhisattva 普覺菩薩|
|11.||Perfect Enlightenment Bodhisattva 圓覺菩薩|
|12.||Most Excellent of Worthies Bodhisattva 賢善首菩薩|
The Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment (Ch. Yuanjue jing 圓覺經) is a Buddhist scripture that has its origins within the Chan and Huayan circles of study and practice, probably composed in China around the beginning of the eighth century. The sutra was extremely popular and influential within the meditation-oriented Buddhist schools of East Asia: first in Chinese Chan, where its influence was considerable, and then later in Korean Seon, where it grew in popularity to the extent that it was made part of the official monastic curriculum of the main Korean school, the Jogye. The sutra also had some influence in Japan, although it never received the kind of attention from the Zen schools there that it did in China and Korea.
The popularity of this scripture can be attributed to two main factors. The first is the distinctly East Asian metaphysical dimension of its soteriology, as the sutra contains, in a tightly organized format, focused discussions of the most important theoretical issues concerning the nature of enlightenment that were at the fore of the East Asian Buddhist consciousness at its period of maturation. These are discussed through conceptual frameworks that have their antecedents in East Asian indigenous Buddhist texts such as the Awakening of Mahāyāna Faith and Vajrasamādhi-sūtra, in indigenous schools such as Tiantai and Huayan, as well as in the pre-Buddhist thought-systems of Confucianism and Daoism.
The second is the sutra's highly practical and concise orientation: much of its content consists of direct instruction on matters of meditation and other related religious issues, such as monastic ritual, confession, the means of selecting a proper teacher, how to maintain a proper relationship with such a teacher, and so forth A large portion of the meditation-related explanations are not merely descriptive, but performative, which means that the reading of such passages is in itself a meditative exercise. The Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment does not only explain to its reader the philosophy that grounds the "as-illusion samādhi" —it directly leads him/her through an exercise aimed at its attainment in the course of reading.
The term "perfect enlightenment," as it is taught in this text, refers to an enlightenment that is not limited in scope. It is also not an enlightenment that is attained exclusively from any partial aspect of the Buddhist doctrine, such as the so-called "elementary" teachings or prajñāpāramitā teachings, and so forth. It is an enlightenment that can accept and explain all the various aspects of the Buddhist doctrine. This is why the full, formal name of the sutra as listed in the East Asian Buddhist canon is the Great Corrective Extensive Perfect Enlightenment Sutra of the Complete Doctrine.
The Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment is arranged in twelve chapters, plus the short convocation. The convocation section describes the scene of the sermon and lists the major participants. The location is a state of deep meditative concentration (samādhi) and the participants are the Buddha and one hundred thousand great bodhisattvas, among whom twelve eminent bodhisattvas act as spokesmen. Each one of the twelve gets up one by one and asks the Buddha a set of questions about doctrine, practice and enlightenment. The structure of the sutra is such that the most "essential" and suddenistic discussions occur in the earlier chapters and the more "functional" and gradualistic dialogues occur later. This kind of structure reflects a motif associated with the doctrine of the Huayan school, which affirms that the Buddha delivered the abstruse Huayan jing as his first sermon, in an effort to directly awaken those whose "roots of virtue" were well-matured. The terminology that such commentators as Zongmi (780-842) and Gihwa (1376-1433) use to describe these advanced practitioners is that they possess the capacity for the teaching of "sudden enlightenment" —a direct awakening to the non-duality of reality, which necessarily precludes gradualistic, "goal-oriented" practice. In the first two chapters (the chapters of Mañjuśrī and Samantabhadra), the Buddha holds very strictly to the sudden position, denying the possibility of enlightenment through gradual practice. In the third chapter he begins to allow for a bit of a gradual view, and the next several chapters become mixtures of the two. The final few chapters offer a fully gradualistic perspective.
According to the major Korean commentator on the sūtra, Gihwa, the first three chapters are aimed at those of superior capacity, the next seven for those of middling capacity and the final two for those of inferior capacity. However, this method of categorization does not necessarily mean that the later chapters become gradually easier to read and understand. In fact some of the most difficult discussions come in the later chapters. Most notable in this regard is the discussion of the "four traces" of Self, Person, Sentient Being and Life in Chapter Nine. Since the distinction between each of these four is extremely subtle, and the wording of the text itself is not that clear, this turns out to be one of the most difficult chapters to digest.
The original Chinese text of the sutra is found in the Taisho canon at vol. 17, no 842. However, for this translation we have used the version of that text that was amended by Gihwa in the course of his commentary on it. Gihwa discovered a number of places where he believed the text was out of joint, and offered clear corrections for these in his commentary. Having, in my study of the text, come to believe that Gihwa was on the mark, I have translated according to his suggested amendments. The Chinese source text provided is also re-edited according to Gihwa's amendments.
The translation of this amended version is basically equivalent to that contained in the appendix to my 1999 translation of the sutra under the title The Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment: Korean Buddhism's Guide to Meditation (SUNY Press). The translation in the main body of that book includes Gihwa's full commentary, along with my own explanatory notes, and is recommended for anyone who wants to undertake more serious study of the sutra. I have made some small changes and corrections here, and expect to make more of these in the future when I have the chance to go through the sutra again more fully.1
Convocation[Chinese Source Text]
經序文: 如是我聞。一時婆我婆入於神通大光明藏三昧正受。 一切如來光嚴住持。是諸衆生淸淨覺地。身心寂滅平等本際。圓滿十方不二隨順。 於不二境、現諸淨土。與大菩薩摩訶薩十萬人倶。其名曰文殊師利菩薩、普賢菩 薩、普眼菩薩、金剛藏菩薩、彌勒菩薩、淸淨慧菩薩、威德自在菩薩、辨音菩薩、 淨諸業障菩薩、普覺菩薩、圓覺菩薩、賢善首菩薩、而爲上首。與諸眷屬、皆入三 昧、同住如來平等法會。
Thus I have heard. One time, the Bhagavan entered the supramundane great radiant bright repository, in the exactly attained samādhi, where all tathāgatas abide in radiant splendor. This is the ground of pure enlightenment of sentient beings, the equal original reality where body and mind are completely erased.
He completely filled the ten directions with the accordance with non-duality, and in this non-dual state manifested all pure lands.
He was with one hundred thousand great bodhisattva-mahasattvas. Those who served as leaders of the assembly were named Mañjuśrī Bodhisattva, Samantabhadra Bodhisattva, Universal Vision Bodhisattva, Vajragarbha Bodhisattva, Maitreya Bodhisattva, Pure Wisdom Bodhisattva, Power and Virtue Unhindered Bodhisattva, Voice of Discernment Bodhisattva, Purifier of All Karmic Hindrances Bodhisattva, Universal Enlightenment Bodhisattva, Perfect Enlightenment Bodhisattva and Most Excellent of Worthies Bodhisattva. With their retinues, all entered into the same samādhi as the Tathāgata at this assembly of the equal dharma.
1. Mañjuśrī Bodhisattva 文殊師利[Chinese Source Text]
於是文殊師利菩薩在大衆中卽從座起｡ 頂禮佛足右繞三匝。長跪叉手而白佛言: 大 悲世尊願爲此會諸來法衆、說於如來本起因地法行。及說菩薩於大乘中發淸淨心遠 離諸病、能使未來末世求大乘者不墮邪見。作是語已、五體投地。如是三請終而復 始。
Mañjuśrī Bodhisattva then arose from his seat in the great assembly. He bowed his head to the Buddha's feet and circumambulated him three times to the right.
He then knelt down with his hands clasped and addressed the Buddha, saying: "Greatly Compassionate World Honored One. Please, for all members of this assembly who have come for your dharma, teach us about the reality-[dharma] practice of the Tathāgata's originally arisen pure causal stage. Also, please teach the bodhisattvas to arise pure mind in the great vehicle and become distantly removed from all dis-eases, such that they can cause the future sentient beings of the degenerate age who seek the great vehicle not to fall into mistaken views." Having said this, he prostrated to the ground. He asked this question three times in succession.[Chinese Source Text]
爾時世尊、吿文殊師利菩薩言: 善哉、 善哉。善男子、汝等乃能爲諸菩薩 諮詢如來因地法行 令諸菩薩於大乘中 發淸 淨心。乃令末世一切衆生 求大乘者 得正住持 不墮邪見｡ 汝等諦聽、當爲汝說。 時文殊師利菩薩奉教歡喜、及諸大衆默然而聽。
Then the World Honored One, speaking to Mañjuśrī Bodhisattva said: "Excellent! Excellent! Good Son, you have skillfully asked on behalf of the bodhisattvas about the reality-practice of the causal stage of the Tathāgata, and have caused all the bodhisattvas to arouse the pure mind in the great vehicle. You have also caused all sentient beings of the degenerate age who seek the great vehicle to gain correct abiding such that they do not fall into erroneous views. Now listen well, and I shall explain for you." Mañjuśrī Bodhisattva received the teaching with reverence and joy; all those in the great assembly became silent and listened.[Chinese Source Text]
善男子、無上 法王有大陀羅尼門。名爲圓覺。流出一切淸淨、眞如、菩提、涅槃及波羅蜜、教授 菩薩。一切如來本起因地皆依圓照淸淨覺相、永斷無明方成佛道。云何無明。善 男子、一切衆生從無始來種種顚倒。猶如迷人四方易處、妄認四大爲自身相、六 塵緣彰爲自心相。譬彼病目見空中華、及第二月。善男子、空實無華、病者妄執。 由妄執故、非唯惑此虛空自性。亦復迷彼實華生處。由此妄有輪轉生死。故名無明。
"Good sons, the unsurpassed King of the dharma possesses the great dhāraṇī-entrance. It is called 'Perfect Enlightenment.' From it is manifested all purity, suchness, bodhi, nirvana and the paramitas which teach bodhisattvas. All tathāgatas in their originally-arisen causal stage rely on the perfect illumination of the attributes of pure enlightenment to permanently sever ignorance and directly accomplish the Buddha-Way."
What is ignorance? Good sons, all sentient beings fall into various inverted views without beginning. Just like a disoriented person who confuses the four directions, they mistakenly take the Four Elements as the attributes of their bodies and the conditioned shadows of the Six Objects as the attributes of their mind. It is just like when our eyes are diseased and we see flowers in the sky, or a second moon. Good sons, the sky actually has no flowers—they are the false attachment of the diseased person. And because of this false attachment, not only are we confused about the self-nature of the sky; we are also mixed up about the place where real flowers come from. From this there is the falsely existent transmigration through life and death. Therefore it is called "ignorance."[Chinese Source Text]
善男子、此無明者 非實無體。如夢中人。夢時非無、及至於醒了無所得。如衆空華滅於虛空、不可說 言有定滅處。何以故? 無生處故。一切衆生於無生中妄見生滅。是故說名輪轉生死。 善男子、如來因地修圓覺者知是空華卽無輪轉、亦無身心受彼生死。非作故無。本 性無故。彼知覺者猶如虛空。知虛空者卽空華相。亦不可說無知覺性。有無倶遣。 是則名爲淨覺隨順。何以故? 虛空性故；常不動故；如來藏中無起滅故、無知見故。 如法界性、究竟圓滿遍十方故。是則名爲因地法行。菩薩因此於大乘中發淸淨心。 末世衆生依此修行、不墮邪見。爾時世尊欲重宣此義而說偈言。
"Good sons, this 'ignorance' actually lacks substance. It is like a man who is dreaming. At the time of the dream, there is no non-existence. But when he awakens he finds that there is nothing for him to hold on to. Similarly, when the sky-flowers disappear from the sky, you cannot say that there is a definite point of their disappearance. Why? Because there is no point from which they arose. All sentient beings falsely perceive arising and ceasing within the unarisen. Therefore they say that there is 'transmigration through life-and-death.' "
"Good sons, in the practice of Perfect Enlightenment of the causal stage of the Tathāgata one understands these 'sky-flowers,' thus there is no transmigration, nor body/mind to undergo life-and-death. But they are not caused to be non-existent. It is because they lack original nature. Now, this [prior] awareness is in itself void, like empty space. Yet since this awareness that perceives it to be like empty space is none other than the appearance of sky-flowers, you also cannot say that there is no nature of awareness. Existence and non- existence both being dispelled is called 'according with pure enlightenment.' "
"Why? Because its nature is completely empty; because it is eternally changeless; because there is neither arising nor ceasing within the matrix of the Tathāgata, and because there are no fixed points of view. Like the nature of the reality-realm it is totally complete and perfect, pervading the ten directions. Therefore it is called the 'reality-practice of the causal stage.' Bodhisattvas, relying upon it arouse their pure mind within the Mahayana. Sentient beings of the degenerate age who practice relying on this will not fall into erroneous views."
Then, the World Honored One, wanting to restate the gist of this, spoke a verse. He said:[Chinese Source Text]
Mañjuśrī, you should know
From their originally arisen causal stage
With enlightened wisdom.
Knowing it to be like sky-flowers
They are able to escape transmigration.
It is like the man in the dream
Who has nothing to grasp upon awakening.
Awareness is like space
Enlightenment pervading the worlds of the ten directions
Is none other than the attainment of the Buddha-way.
All illusions cease at no-place
And in accomplishing the Way there is nothing attained.
That's because the original nature is complete, perfect.
In it, bodhisattvas
Are able to produce bodhicitta
All sentient beings of the degenerate age
Practicing this, will avoid erroneous views.
2. Samantabhadra Bodhisattva 普賢菩薩[Chinese Source Text]
於是普賢菩薩在大衆中卽從座起。頂禮佛足右繞三匝｡ 長跪 叉手而白佛言: 大悲世尊。願爲此會諸菩薩衆 及爲末世一切衆生修大乘者: 開示 修行方便漸次, 聞此圓覺淸淨境。界云何修行? 世尊、若彼衆生知如幻者、身心 亦幻、云何以幻還修於幻? 若諸幻性一切盡滅 則無有心。誰爲修行? 云何復說修 行如幻? 若諸衆生本不修行 於生死中常居幻化。曾不了知如幻境界 令妄想心、 云何解脫? 作是語已、五體投地。如是三請、終而復始。
Then Samantabhadra Bodhisattva rose from his seat in the great assembly. He bowed to the Buddha's feet and circumambulated him three times to the right. He knelt down with his hands clasped, and said to the Buddha: "Greatly Compassionate World Honored One. I would like to ask for all the bodhisattvas at this assembly and for the sentient beings of the degenerate age who are practicing Mahayana: Please reveal the expedient stages of practice and let them hear of this pure realm of perfect enlightenment. How should we practice?"
World Honored One, if these sentient beings know about "illusion," and that body and mind are also illusion, how can they remedy illusion using illusion? If all illusory natures are completely annihilated, then there is no mind. Who is going to carry out the practice? Moreover, based on this, how can you teach the practice of "illusion?" If all sentient beings originally do not practice, then they will remain forever trapped within the illusion of life and death. Not having penetrated the realm of the illusory, how will they liberate the mind that is trapped in false conceptualization?
"I implore you on behalf of all the bodhisattvas at this assembly, as well as for all sentient beings of the degenerate age, to teach the gradual practice of expedient means: what kind of expedient means of gradual practice should we introduce to cause sentient beings to be eternally free from all illusions?" Having said this, he prostrated fully to the ground. He asked this question three times in succession.[Chinese Source Text]
爾時世尊吿普賢菩薩言: 善哉、善哉。 汝等乃能爲諸菩薩 及末世衆生 諮問如來修習菩薩如幻三昧方便漸次、令諸衆生得離諸幻。汝今諦聽､ 當爲汝說。時普賢菩薩奉教歡喜、及諸大衆默然而聽。
Then the World Honored One, speaking to Samantabhadra Bodhisattva said: "Excellent, excellent! Good son, you have well asked the Tathāgata on behalf of the bodhisattvas and the sentient beings of the degenerate age about the expedient stages of the practice of the bodhisattva's 'as-illusion-samādhi.' This practice enables all the sentient beings to gain freedom from illusion. Now listen well, and I shall explain it for you." Samantabhadra received this teaching with great joy and reverence; all in the great assembly became silent and listened.[Chinese Source Text]
善男子、一切衆生種種幻化皆生如來圓覺妙心、猶如空華從 空而有。幻華雖滅、空性不壞。衆生幻心還依幻滅、諸幻盡滅、覺心不動。依幻說 覺亦名爲幻。若說有覺、猶未離幻。說無覺者、亦復如是。是故幻滅名爲不動。
"Good sons, all sentient beings' various illusions are born from the perfectly enlightened marvelous mind of the Tathāgata, just like the sky-flowers come to exist from the sky. But even though the illusory flowers vanish, the nature of the sky is indestructible. The illusory mind of sentient beings also vanishes based on illusion, and while all illusions are utterly erased, the enlightened mind is unchanged. The use of illusion to speak of enlightenment is also called illusion. If you say there is enlightenment, you are not yet free from illusion. If you say there is no enlightenment, this is the same thing. Therefore, the cessation of illusion is called 'unchanging.' "[Chinese Source Text]
善男子、一切菩薩及末世衆生應當遠離一切幻化虛妄境界。 由堅執持遠離心故、心如幻者亦復遠離。遠離爲幻亦復遠離。遠離離幻亦復遠離。 得無所離卽除諸幻。比如鑽火兩木相因。火出木盡灰飛烟滅。以幻修幻亦復如是。 諸幻雖盡不入斷滅。
"Good sons, all bodhisattvas and sentient beings of the degenerate age should separate from all illusory and false realms. By firmly abiding in separation from thought, you also separate from the thought of 'illusion.' You also separate from the illusion of 'separation.' You also separate from this separation from this illusion of separation. You will reach 'nothing to be separated from,' which is the removal of all illusion. It is like making a fire with two sticks. The fire blazes and the wood is consumed; the ashes fly away and the smoke vanishes. Using illusion to remedy illusion is exactly like this. Yet even though all illusions are extinguished, you do not enter into nothingness."[Chinese Source Text]
圓 覺心建立 猶如虛空華
虛空本不動 幻從 諸覺生
覺則無漸次 方 便亦如是
"Good sons, when you know illusion, you will immediately be free, without devising expedient means. Freedom from illusion is in itself enlightenment, and there are no stages. All Bodhisattvas and sentient beings of the degenerate age who practice like this will be permanently free from all illusion."
Then the World Honored One, wanting to restate the gist of this, spoke a verse. He said:
Samantabhadra, you should know
The beginningless illusory ignorance
Of all sentient beings
Is all created from
The perfectly enlightened mind of all the Tathāgatas.
It is just like the sky-flowers
Which have their appearance in relation to the sky;
Though the sky-flowers vanish
The sky has never changed.
Illusion is born from enlightenment;
In the cessation of illusion enlightenment remains perfectly complete.
This is because the enlightened mind is changeless.
If these bodhisattvas
And sentient beings of the degenerate age
Always appropriately separate from illusion,
They will completely free themselves from it.
Like the flame that springs from wood:
The wood is consumed and the flame again disappears.
If you are enlightened, then there are no stages of practice
Nor is there such a thing as expedient means.
3. Universal Vision Bodhisattva 普眼菩薩[Chinese Source Text]
於是普眼菩薩在大衆中、卽從座起。頂禮佛足右繞三匝。長 跪叉手而白佛言: 大悲世尊。願爲此會諸菩薩衆及爲末世一切衆生、演說菩薩修行 漸次。云何思惟? 云何住持? 衆生未悟、作何方便普令開悟? 世尊、若彼衆生 無正方便及正思惟、聞佛如來說此三昧、心生迷悶、不能悟入。願興慈悲爲我等輩 及末世衆生、假說方便。作是語已、五體投地。如是三請終而復始。
Then the bodhisattva Universal Vision arose from his seat in the great assembly. He bowed to the Buddha's feet and circumambulated him three times to the right. He knelt down with his hands clasped and addressed the Buddha, saying: "Greatly Compassionate World Honored One. I beg of you on behalf of the bodhisattvas of this assembly and the sentient beings of the degenerate age, to expound on the bodhisattvas' stages and practice. How should they think? How should they abide? For sentient beings who have not yet awakened, what kinds of expedient means should be devised to cause them all to awaken?"
"World Honored One, if these sentient beings lack the correct expedients and correct thought, then when they hear you explain this samādhi, confusion will arise in their minds and they will be unable to awaken and enter. Please arouse your compassion for us and for the sentient beings of the degenerate age, and provisionally explain these expedient methods." Having said this, he prostrated himself to the ground. He made this request three times in succession.[Chinese Source Text]
爾時世尊、吿普眼菩薩言: 善哉、善哉。善男子、汝等乃 能爲諸菩薩及末世衆生問於如來修行漸次、思惟、住持、乃至假說種種方便。汝今 諦聽、當爲汝說。時普眼菩薩奉教歡喜、及諸大衆默然而聽。
Then the World Honored One, addressing the bodhisattva Universal Vision, said: "Excellent, excellent! Good son, you have asked well for the bodhisattvas and sentient beings of the degenerate age about the stages of the Tathāgata's practice; about his thought and abiding, and about the explanation of all the various expedient means. Now listen well, and I shall explain for you." Universal Vision Bodhisattva received this instruction with great joy. The great assembly became silent and listened.[Chinese Source Text]
善男子、彼新學菩薩及末世衆生欲求如來淨圓覺心、應當正 念遠離諸幻、先依如來奢摩他行。堅持禁戒安處徒衆、宴坐靜室恆作是念: 我今此 身四大和合。所謂髮毛爪齒皮肉筋骨髓腦垢色皆歸於地。唾涕膿血津液涎沫淡淚精 氣大小便利、皆歸於水。煖氣歸火、動轉歸風。四大各離、今者妄身當在何處? 則知此身畢竟無體。和合爲相、實同幻化。四緣假合、妄有六根。六根四大中外合 成、妄有緣氣。於中積聚、似有緣相假名爲心。善男子、此虛妄心若無六塵則不能 有。四大分解無塵可得。於中緣塵各離散滅、畢竟無有緣心可見。
"Good sons, these newly awakened bodhisattvas and sentient beings of the degenerate age who yearn for the pure enlightened mind of the Tathāgata must correct their thoughts and rid themselves of all illusions, first relying on the Tathāgata's practice of śamatha. Firmly established in moral discipline and living in harmony with like-minded students, then practicing silent sitting in a quiet room, they should uninterruptedly be mindful of the following:"
"This present body is a synthesis of the Four Elements. Hair, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, bones, marrow, brains and pigment all return to Earth. Saliva, mucus, pus, blood, sputum, scum, phlegm, tears, semen, urine and feces all return to Water. Heat returns to Fire, and movement returns to Wind. When the Four Elements have been separated, where can the false body exist? Now you know that this body ultimately has no substance. As a synthesis it appears, but in reality it is like an illusion conjured by a magician."
"When these four factors temporarily combine, the Six Faculties falsely appear; through the internal and external matching of the Six Faculties and Four Elements, there is the deluded apprehension of conditioned energy. Within this conglomeration, there seem to be marks of this conditioned energy, which is provisionally called 'mind.' Good sons, if this false mind does not have its Six Objects, it cannot exist. If the Four Elements are separated, there are no objects to be experienced. At this point, the cognized objects each disperse and vanish, and ultimately there is no dependently arisen mind to be seen."[Chinese Source Text]
善男子、彼之衆生幻身滅故、幻心亦滅。幻心滅故、幻塵亦 滅。幻塵滅故、幻滅亦滅。幻滅滅故、非幻不滅。比如磨鏡、垢盡明現。善男子、 當知身心皆爲幻垢。垢相永滅十方淸淨。善男子、比如淸淨摩尼寶珠、映於五色隨 方各現。諸愚癡者見彼摩尼實有五色。善男子、圓覺淨性現於身心、隨類各應。彼 愚癡者說淨圓覺實有如是身心自相、亦復如是。由此不能遠於幻化。是故我說身心 幻垢。對離幻垢說名菩薩。垢盡對除、卽無對垢及說名者。
"Good sons, since the illusory body of this sentient being vanishes, the illusory mind also vanishes. Since the illusory mind vanishes, illusory objects also vanish. Since illusory objects vanish, illusory vanishing also vanishes. Since illusory vanishing vanishes, non- illusion does not vanish. It is like polishing a mirror: when the filth is gone its brightness naturally appears. Good sons, you should understand both body and mind to be illusory filth. When the defiled aspects are permanently extinguished, the entire universe becomes pure."
"Good sons, it is like a pure mani-pearl which reflects as all kinds of colors, depending upon its surroundings. The foolish see that pearl as really having these colors. Good sons, the pure nature of Perfect Enlightenment is disclosed in bodies and minds, according to each individual type. When these ignorant fellows say that pure Perfect Enlightenment really has body and mind, it is the same sort of error. It is only because these people are unable to free themselves from illusory appearances that I call body and mind 'illusory filth.' The one who opposes and removes illusory filth is named 'bodhisattva.' When filth is gone, its opposition is removed; then there is no opposition, no filth, nor anything to be named."[Chinese Source Text]
善男子、此菩薩及末世衆生證得諸幻、滅影像故、爾時便得 無方淸淨。善男子、無邊虛空覺所顯發。覺圓明故顯心淸淨。心淸淨故、見塵淸 淨。見淸淨故、眼根淸淨。根淸淨故、眼識淸淨。識淸淨故、聞塵淸淨。聞淸淨故、 耳根淸淨。根淸淨故、耳識淸淨。識淸淨故、覺塵淸淨。如是乃至鼻舌身意亦復如 是。善男子、根淸淨故、色塵淸淨。色淸淨故、聲塵淸淨。香味觸法亦復如是。
"Good sons, because these bodhisattvas and sentient beings of the degenerate age fully witness all illusion and dispel all images, they immediately experience limitless purity."
"Good sons, enlightenment reveals limitless space. Since enlightenment is perfectly clear, the manifest mind is pure. Since the mind is pure, the objects of vision are pure. Since vision is pure, the eye faculty is pure. Since the eye faculty is pure, the visual consciousness is pure. Since this consciousness is pure, hearing is pure. Since hearing is pure, the ear faculty is pure. Since the faculty is pure, the auditory consciousness is pure. Since the consciousness is pure, all perception is pure, and so it is true for smell, taste, touch and conceptualization as well."
"Good sons, since the eye faculty is pure, the color spectrum is pure. Since color is pure, the field of sound is also pure. The same is true of the fields of smell, taste, touch and thought."[Chinese Source Text]
善男子、六塵淸淨故、地大淸淨。地淸淨故、水大淸淨。火 大風大亦復如是。善男子、四大淸淨故、十二處、十八界、二十五有淸淨。彼淸淨 故、十力、四無所畏、四無礙智、佛十八不共法、三十七助道品淸淨。如是乃至八 萬四千陀羅尼門一切淸淨。善男子、一切實相性淸淨故、一身淸淨。一身淸淨故、 多身淸淨。多身淸淨故、如是乃至十方衆生圓覺淸淨。善男子、一世界淸淨故、多 世淸淨。多世淸淨故、如是乃至盡於虛空、圓裹三世、一切平等淸淨不動。
"Good sons, since the six objects are pure, the Earth element is pure. Since Earth is pure, Water is pure, and so are Fire and Wind. Good sons, since the Four Elements are pure, the Twelve Loci, the Eighteen Realms and the Twenty-Five Kinds of Existence are pure. Since these are pure, the Ten Powers, the Four Kinds of Fearlessness, the Four Types of Unobstructed Wisdom, the Buddha's Eighteen Distinctive Characteristics, and the Thirty- seven Aids to Enlightenment are pure, and so on up to the Eighty-four thousand dhāraṇī-entrances, everything is pure."
"Good sons, since all true marks are pure in their nature, one body is pure. Since one body is pure, many bodies are pure. Since many bodies are pure the same is true of all sentient beings in the ten directions, who are perfectly enlightened and pure. Good sons, since one world is pure, many worlds are pure. Since many worlds are pure, we can see that throughout all of space, completely including the three times, all things are equal, pure and changeless."[Chinese Source Text]
善男子、虛空如是平等不動、當知覺性平等不動。四大不動 故、當知覺性平等不動。如是乃至八萬四千陀羅尼門平等不動。當知覺性平等不動。 善男子、覺性遍滿淸淨不動圓無際故、當知六根遍滿法界。根遍滿故、當知六塵遍滿法 界。塵遍滿故、當知四大遍滿法界。如是乃至陀羅尼門遍滿法界。善男子、由彼妙覺 性遍滿故、根性塵性無壞無雜。根塵無壞故、如是乃至陀羅尼門無壞無雜。如百千 燈光照一室。其光遍滿無壞無雜。
"Good sons, since space is equal and changeless, you should know that the nature of enlightenment is equal and changeless. Since the Four Elements are changeless, you should know that the nature of enlightenment is equal and changeless. The same holds true all the way up through the 84,000 dhāraṇī-entrances which are equal and changeless. Therefore you should know that the nature of enlightenment is equal and changeless."
"Good sons, the unchanging purity of the nature of enlightenment completely pervades—it includes everything without restriction. Therefore you should know that the six faculties completely pervade the realm of reality. Since the faculties completely pervade, you should know that the six sensory fields completely pervade the realm of reality. Since the sensory fields completely pervade, you should know that the Four Elements completely pervade the realm of reality. It is the same way with all things, including the dhāraṇī-entrances, which completely pervade the realm of reality."
"Good sons, since this marvelous nature of enlightenment completely pervades, there is neither conflict nor confusion between the natures of the faculties and their objects. Since the faculties and objects have no conflict, it is like this through all of existence, including in the dhāraṇī-entrances, which have neither conflict nor confusion. It is like one hundred thousand lamps shining in one room. Their light completely pervades without conflict or confusion."[Chinese Source Text]
善男子、覺成就故、當知菩薩不與法縛、不求法脫。不厭生 死、不愛涅槃。不敬持戒、不憎毀禁。不重久習、不輕初學。何以故? 一切覺故。 譬如眼光曉了前境。其光圓滿得無憎愛。何以故? 光體無二、無憎愛故。
"Good sons, since their enlightenment is fully perfected, you should know that bodhisattvas are not attached to the dharma, and do not seek liberation from the dharma. They do not hate saṃsāra and do not love nirvana. They do not venerate one for keeping the precepts, nor despise the person who breaks them. They are not in awe of the adept practitioner and do not look down on the beginner. Why? Because they are all enlightened. It is like vision seeing an object. The vision completely pervades without experiencing like or dislike. Why? Vision, in essence has no duality, therefore there is neither like nor dislike."[Chinese Source Text]
善男子、此菩薩及末世衆生修習此心得成就者、與此無修亦 無成就。圓覺普照寂滅無二。與中百千滿億阿僧祇不可說恆河沙諸佛世界猶如空華、 亂起亂滅。不卽不離無縛無脫。始知衆生本來成佛、生死涅槃猶如昨夢。善男子、 如昨夢故、當知生死及與涅槃無起無滅無來無去。其所證者、無得無失、無取無捨。 其能證者、無作無止、無任無滅。於此證中無能無所畢竟無證亦無證者。一切法性 平等不壞。
"Good sons, these bodhisattvas and sentient beings of the degenerate age who cultivate this mind and are able to fully consummate it, have neither cultivation nor consummation. Their Perfect Enlightenment illuminates everywhere, and is perfectly still, without duality. Here, Buddha-worlds a quintillion times as many as the incalculable amount of grains of sand in the Ganges river haphazardly arise and cease like flowers in the sky. There is neither sameness nor difference, neither bondage nor freedom. Now you know for the first time that all sentient beings are originally perfect buddhas; that saṃsāra and nirvana are like last night's dream."
"Good sons, since they are like last night's dream, you should know that saṃsāra and nirvana have neither arising nor ceasing, neither coming nor going. In the actualization of this there is neither gain nor loss, neither grasping nor releasing. In the one who realizes, there is no 'naturalism,' 'stopping,' 'contrivance,' or 'annihilation.' In this actualization there is neither subject nor object, and ultimately neither actualization nor actualized one. The nature of all dharmas is equal and indestructible."[Chinese Source Text]
"Good sons, these bodhisattvas use this kind practice, gradually advance like this, think in this way, abide in this way, and awaken others using these kinds of expedient means. If you seek this kind of dharma, you will not again be vexed."
Then the World Honored One, wanting to restate the gist of this, spoke a verse. He said:
Universal Vision, you should know
The bodies and minds of all sentient beings
Are only illusion.
The body is composed of the Four Elements;
The mind depends upon the Six Objects.
When the Four Elements disperse,
Who will be there as a synthesis?
In this kind of gradient practice
All is completely pure,
Unchanging, pervading the realm of reality.
Without contrivance, stopping, naturalism or annihilation
And also without any subjective "releaser,"
All Buddha-worlds are
Just like sky-flowers.
The three times are all the same
Ultimately without coming or going.
Bodhisattvas who have recently arisen their minds
And sentient beings of the degenerate age
Who want to enter the Buddha Way
Should practice like this.
4. Vajragarbha Bodhisattva 金剛藏菩薩[Chinese Source Text]
於是金剛藏菩薩在大衆中、卽從座起。頂禮佛足右繞三匝、 長跪叉手而白佛言: 大悲世尊。善爲一切諸菩薩衆宣揚如來圓覺淸淨大陀羅尼因地 法行漸次方便。與諸衆生開發蒙昧、在會法衆承佛慈誨、幻翳朗然、慧目淸淨。世 尊、若諸衆生本來成佛、何故復有一切無明? 若諸無明衆生本有、何因緣故如來 復說本來成佛? 十方異生本成佛道、後起無明、何時復生一切煩惱? 惟願不捨無 遮大慈、爲諸菩薩及末世衆生開祕密藏。令諸菩薩得決定心、及令末世一切衆生得 聞如是修多羅教了義法門永斷疑悔。作是語已、五體投地。如是三請終而復始。
Then the bodhisattva Vajragarbha rose from his seat in the great assembly and bowed his head to the Buddha's feet. He circumambulated him three times to the right, and then he knelt down with his hands clasped and said to the Buddha: "Greatly Compassionate World Honored One, you have lectured superbly for all these bodhisattvas about the purity of Perfect Enlightenment, the great dhāraṇī, the dharma practice of the causal stage and gradient practices according to provisional explanations. You have cleared away the sentient beings' clouds of darkness; all those at this dharma assembly, having received your compassionate instruction, have clarified their optical illusions and purified their wisdom eye."
"World Honored One; if all sentient beings are originally perfect buddhas, then how can they also possess ignorance? If sentient beings are originally ignorant, how can you say that they have always been perfect buddhas? If all the worldlings in the ten directions are originally perfectly enlightened, but later give rise to ignorance, at what point do all these tathāgatas regenerate these afflictions? My only request is that you not discard your limitless great compassion and that you reveal the concealed treasure to the bodhisattvas and sentient beings of the degenerate age. This will cause bodhisattvas to gain unshakable faith, and allow all sentient beings of the degenerate age to gain access to this teaching which is a sutra instruction of the complete doctrine, such that they can permanently sever doubt and regret." Having said this, he prostrated himself to the ground. He asked this question three times in succession.[Chinese Source Text]
爾時世尊 吿金剛藏菩薩言: 善哉、善哉｡ 善男子、汝等乃 能爲諸菩薩及末世衆生問於如來甚深祕密究竟方便。是諸菩薩最上教誨了義大乘、 能使十方修學菩薩及末世一切衆生得決定心、永斷疑悔。汝今諦聽 、當爲汝說。 時金剛藏菩薩奉教歡喜、及諸大衆默然而聽。
"Then the World Honored One, speaking to the bodhisattva Vajragarbha said: Excellent, excellent! Good son, you have asked well for the bodhisattvas and sentient beings of the degenerate age about the Tathāgata's extremely deep and recondite final expedient means. This is the highest teaching given by the bodhisattvas, the fully revealed doctrine of the Great Vehicle, which is able to cause the enlightening bodhisattvas of the ten directions, as well as the sentient beings of the degenerate age to gain unshakable faith and permanently sever doubt and regret. Now listen well, and I shall explain this for you." Vajragarbha Bodhisattva received this instruction with reverence and great joy and those in the great assembly became silent and listened.[Chinese Source Text]
善男子、一切世界始終生滅、前後有無、聚散起止循環往復 念念相續種種取捨皆是輪廻。未出輪廻而辨圓覺、彼圓覺性卽同流轉。若免輪廻無 有是處。譬如動目能搖湛水。亦如定眼由廻轉火。雲駛月運、舟行岸移、亦復如是。 善男子、諸旋未息。彼物先住尚不可得。何況輪轉生死垢心、曾未淸淨、觀佛圓覺 而不旋復? 是故汝等便生三惑。
"Good sons, all worlds begin and end, are born and die, have prior and after, exist and do not exist, gather and scatter, arise and cease. This circular motion of going and returning without a moment's lapse, variously being grasped and released, is all cyclic existence. The nature of a Perfect Enlightenment that is discerned without having left cyclic existence is simply transmigratory. If you think you can escape cyclic existence in this way, you are completely off the mark."
"It is comparable to the way in which shaking the eyes can make still water appear to move, or the way that a transfixed gaze can enable the appearance of a fire-wheel. In the same way, clouds flying past the moon make it seem to move, and when you are in a moving boat, the shore appears to move. Good sons, all these things are in motion without cease, and even though the objects are already stationary, you can't get a fix on them. How can you possibly expect to get a glimpse of the Buddha's Perfect Enlightenment with the cyclical, samsaric, stained mind which has never been clear? Because of this, you are prone to give rise to these three mental disturbances."[Chinese Source Text]
善男子、譬如幻翳妄見空華。幻翳若除、不可說言: 此翳已 滅、何時更起一切諸翳? 何以故? 翳華二法非相對故。亦如空華滅於空時、不可 說言: 虛空何時更起空華? 何以故? 空本無華、非起滅故。生死涅槃同於起滅。 妙覺圓照離於華翳。
"Good sons, it is like an illusory eye disease falsely engendering a vision of sky-flowers. If the illusory eye disease is removed, you cannot ask: 'now that this eye-disease is cleared away, when will other eye-diseases reappear?' Why? Because these two things—flowers and eye-disease, are not interdependent. It is also like when the sky-flowers vanish from the sky. You can't say, 'when will the sky re-arise sky-flowers?' Why? Since the sky originally has no flowers, they do not arise and cease. Saṃsāra and nirvana are the same as arising and ceasing; marvelous enlightenment illuminates perfectly, and is free from flowers or eye disease."[Chinese Source Text]
善男子、當知虛空非是暫有、亦非暫無。況復如來隨順圓覺、 而爲虛空平等本性? 善男子、如銷金鑛。金非銷有。旣已成金、不重爲鑛。經無窮 時、金性不壞。不應說言本非成就。如來圓覺亦復如是。
"Good sons, you should know that the sky does not exist for an instant nor not exist for an instant. How much more so with the Tathāgata's perfectly enlightened marvelous mind and becoming the equal original nature of the sky?"
"Good sons, it is like smelting gold ore. The gold does not come into being because of smelting; it is already perfect gold, and after refinement will never again become ore. Even though it passes through endless time, the nature of the gold is never corrupted. It is wrong to say that it is not originally perfect. The Perfect Enlightenment of the Tathāgata is also like this."[Chinese Source Text]
善男子、一切如來妙圓覺心本無菩提及於涅槃、亦無成佛及 不成佛、無妄輪廻及非輪廻。善男子、但諸聲聞所圓境界、身心語言皆悉斷滅。終 不能至彼之親證所現涅槃。何況能以有思惟心、測度如來圓覺境界? 如取螢火燒須 彌山、終不能著。以輪廻心、生輪廻見、入於如來大寂滅海、終不能至。是故我說 一切菩薩及末世衆生先斷無始輪廻根本。
"Good sons, the marvelous perfectly enlightened mind of the tathāgatas originally has neither bodhi nor nirvana; it has neither accomplishment of Buddhahood nor non-accomplishment of Buddhahood; no false cyclic existence and no non-cyclic existence."
"Good sons, in the state is the consummation of the direct disciple path, there is complete severance of the karmic activities of word, thought and action."
"Yet they are still incapable of attaining their own actualized and manifest nirvana. How can you possibly expect to fathom the Tathāgata's state of Perfect Enlightenment using discursive thought? It is like trying to burn Mt. Sumeru with the fire from a firefly—it is impossible!"
"Using the cyclic mind, you produce cyclic views and you will never be able to enter the Tathāgata's ocean of perfect tranquillity. Therefore, I say that all bodhisattvas and sentient beings of the degenerate age should first sever the beginningless root of cyclic existence."[Chinese Source Text]
善男子、有作思惟從有心起。皆是六塵妄想緣氣非實心體、已如空華。用此思惟辨於佛境猶如空華復結空果。展轉妄想無有是處。 善男子、虛妄浮心多諸巧見不能成就圓覺方便。如是分別非爲正問。 爾時世尊、欲重宣此義而說偈言。
"Good sons, habituated discursive thought arises from the conditioned mind. The six data- fields, false conceptualization and conditioned energies are not the true essence of mind— indeed, they are like sky-flowers. But using discursive thought to discern the Buddha-state is like the sky-flowers further producing 'sky-fruits.' Circular false thoughts are useless here."
"Good sons, false, floating thoughts and numerous clever views are incapable of perfecting the expedient means of Perfect Enlightenment. Using this kind of discrimination, you cannot even formulate a proper question."
Then the World Honored One, desiring to restate the gist of this, spoke a verse, saying:
Vajragarbha, you should know
The Tathāgata's perfectly tranquil nature
Has never had a beginning or end.
If you use the cyclic mind
Discursive thought just revolves,
At most, reaching the limits of cyclic existence,
And you are unable to enter the Buddha-sea.
It is like smelting gold ore:
The gold does not exist because of smelting,
Yet crude gold, from smelting
Once subsequently perfected,
Never returns to the state of ore.
Saṃsāra and nirvana,
Worldlings and Buddhas
Like sky-flowers, are appearances.
Discursive thought is just an illusory phenomenon:
How can it penetrate falsity?
Only after you fully know this mind
Can you seek Perfect Enlightenment.
5. Maitreya Bodhisattva 彌勒菩薩[Chinese Source Text]
於是彌勒菩薩在大衆中、卽從座起。頂禮佛足右繞三匝。長 跪叉手而白佛言: 大悲世尊。廣爲菩薩開祕密藏、令諸大衆深悟輪廻、分別邪正。 能施末世一切衆生無畏道眼於大涅槃生決定信。無復重隨輪轉境界、起循環見。世 尊、若諸菩薩及末世衆生欲遊如來大寂滅海、云何當斷輪廻根本? 於諸輪廻有幾 種性? 修佛菩提幾等差別? 廻入塵勞當設幾種教化方便度諸衆生? 惟願不捨救 世大悲令諸修行一切菩薩及末世衆生慧目肅淸、照輝心鏡、圓悟如來無上知見。作 是語已、五體投地。如是三請、終而復始。
Then the bodhisattva Maitreya arose from his seat in the great assembly and bowed his head to the Buddha's feet. He circumambulated him three times to the right, and then knelt down with his hands clasped. He addressed the Buddha, saying: "Greatly Compassionate World Honored One, you have opened wide the secret treasure for the bodhisattvas and have made all in the great assembly deeply awaken to transmigration and distinguish between the correct and mistaken. You have been able to impart the Fearless Eye of the Way and unshakable faith in Great Nirvana to the sentient beings of the degenerate age; they will not again chase after cyclic existence or give rise to cyclic views."
"World Honored One; if the bodhisattvas and sentient beings of the degenerate age aspire to float on the Tathāgata's great tranquil ocean, how should they sever the root of cyclic existence? In the various kinds of cyclic existence, how many types of beings are there? How many differences are there in types of practice of the Buddha's bodhi? When we reenter the dirty and difficult world, what kinds of teaching devices should we establish to save all sentient beings? I implore you not to relax in your world-saving great compassion—that you clarify the Wisdom Eye of all practicing bodhisattvas and sentient beings of the degenerate age, illuminate their mind-mirror, and completely awaken the Tathāgata's unsurpassed insight." After saying this, he prostrated fully to the ground. He asked this question three times in succession.[Chinese Source Text]
爾時世尊 吿彌勒菩薩言: 善哉、善哉。善男子、汝等乃能 爲諸菩薩及末世衆生請問如來深奧祕密微妙之義、令諸菩薩潔淸慧目、及令一切末 世衆生永斷輪廻。心悟實相具無生忍。汝今諦聽、當爲汝說。時彌勒菩薩奉教歡喜、 及諸大衆默然而聽。
Then the World Honored One, addressing the Bodhisattva Maitreya, said: "Excellent, excellent! Good son, you have questioned well on behalf of the bodhisattvas and sentient beings of the degenerate age about the Tathāgata's mysterious, secret, subtle doctrine. You have enabled the Bodhisattvas to purify their Wisdom Eye, and allowed all sentient beings of the degenerate age to permanently sever themselves from cyclic existence. Their minds will awaken to their true characteristic and they will possess the equipoise that comes with the awareness of the non-arising characteristic of existence. Now listen well, and I shall explain this for you." Maitreya received this instruction with joy and great reverence. All those in the great assembly became silent and listened.[Chinese Source Text]
善男子、一切衆生、從無始際、由有種種恩愛貪欲、故有輪 廻。若諸世界一切種性、卵生、胎生、濕生、化生、皆因淫欲而正性命、當知輪 廻愛爲根本。由有諸欲助發愛性、是故能令生死相續。欲因愛生、命因欲有。衆生 愛命還依欲本。愛欲爲因愛命爲果。由於欲境起諸違順。境背愛心而生憎嫉、造種 種業。是故復生地獄餓鬼。知欲可厭、愛厭業道、捨惡樂善復現天人。還知諸愛可 厭惡故、棄愛樂捨。還滋愛本、便現有爲增上善果。皆輪廻故不成聖道。是故衆生 欲脫生死免諸輪廻、先斷貪欲及除愛渴。
"Good sons, all sentient beings transmigrate because of their possession, from beginningless time, of affection, attached love, craving and desire."
"Since all the different types of beings—those born from eggs, those born from wombs, those born from moisture and those born by transformation all receive their birth and life from sexual desire, you should realize that cyclic existence has attached love as its basis. This tendency to be gripped by attached love is abetted by the existence of all desires, therefore it is able to empower the continuity of saṃsāra. Desire arises depending upon attached love; life force exists depending upon desire. Furthermore, the attached love and life of sentient beings have desire as their root. Attached love and desire are causes, attached love and life are results."
"It is in reference to the objects of desire that you arise all likes and dislikes. When the object is contrary to the attached mind, you arise aversion and jealousy and go around creating all sorts of karma. It is because of this that you are reborn as a hell-being or a hungry ghost. But then, knowing that desire should be abandoned and attaching to the path of abandonment of karmic activity, you cast off evil and enjoy goodness; hence, you are reborn as a god or man. Again, knowing that you should dislike all forms of attachment, you let go of attachment and enjoy detachment. This greatly nourishes the root of attachment and you automatically produce conditionally enhanced positive states. But since all of this is cyclic existence, you still do not attain to the sagely Way. Therefore, sentient beings who desire to be free from birth and death and want to escape cyclic existence, first have to sever desire and rid themselves of attached love."[Chinese Source Text]
善男子、菩薩變化示現世間、非愛爲本。但以慈悲令彼捨愛 假諸貪欲而入生死。若諸末世一切衆生能捨諸欲及除憎愛、永斷輪廻。勤救如來圓 覺境界於淸淨心、便得開悟。善男子、一切衆生由本貪欲發揮無明、顯出五性差別 不等。依二種障而現深淺。云何二障? 一者理障、礙正知見。二者事障、續諸生 死。云何五性? 善男子、若此二障未得斷滅、名未成佛。若諸衆生永捨貪欲、先 除事障、未斷理障、但能悟入聲聞緣覺、未能顯住菩薩境界。
"Good sons, when bodhisattvas appear in the world to teach, it is not based on attachment. It is only their compassionate intention to have the sentient beings discard attachment that they provisionally take on all kinds of desire and enter birth-and-death."
"If all sentient beings of the degenerate age can cast off their desires and remove love and hate, they will permanently end their cyclic existence. Seeking the perfectly enlightened state of the Tathāgata in their pure minds, they will directly attain awakening."
"Good sons, sentient beings, because of their base of desire, generate ignorance and manifest the distinctions and inequalities of the Five Natures. Because of the Two Hindrances there is manifestation of deep and shallow. What are the Two Hindrances? The first is the noumenal hindrance which obstructs correct awareness; the second is the phenomenal hindrance which enables the continuation of saṃsāra."
"What are the 'Five Natures?' Good sons, if sentient beings have not yet been able to destroy the Two Hindrances, this is called 'non-consummation of one's Buddhahood.' If sentient beings permanently discard desire, first removing the phenomenal hindrance, but not yet severing the noumenal hindrance, they are able to awaken in the way of direct disciples and solitary realizers but are not able to manifest and dwell in the state of the bodhisattva."[Chinese Source Text]
善男子、若諸末世一切衆生欲汎如來大圓覺海、先當發願勤 斷二障。二障已伏卽能悟入菩薩境界。若事理障已永斷滅、卽入如來微妙圓覺、滿 足菩提及大涅槃。善男子、一切衆生皆證圓覺。逢善知識、依彼所作因地法行。時 事修習便有頓漸。若遇如來無上菩提正修行路、根無大小。皆成佛果。若諸衆生雖 求善友遇邪見者、未得正悟。是則名爲外道種性。邪師過謬非衆生咎。是名衆生五 性差別。
"Good sons, if all sentient beings of the degenerate age desire to float on the great ocean of the Tathāgata's Perfect Enlightenment, they should first arouse the determination to do away with the Two Hindrances. Once the Two Hindrances are subdued, one can awaken and enter the state of the bodhisattva; after permanently destroying the noumenal and phenomenal hindrances, one is able to enter the sublime Perfect Enlightenment of the Tathāgata, and able to fully accomplish bodhi and great nirvana."
"Good sons, all sentient beings without exception actualize Perfect Enlightenment."
"When you meet a Genuine Teacher, rely on the reality-practice of the causal stage that he sets up for you. When you follow this practice, both sudden and gradual will be contained. If you come upon the correct path of practice of the unsurpassed bodhi of the Tathāgatas, then there are no 'superior' or 'inferior' abilities of people: all accomplish Buddhahood. If, while seeking a Genuine Teacher, sentient beings meet one with mistaken views, they will not gain the correct awakening. Although this is called the 'heterodox nature,' the mistake is the fault of the teacher, and not that of the sentient beings. This is the 'distinction of the five natures' of sentient beings."[Chinese Source Text]
善男子、菩薩唯以大悲方便入諸世間、開發未悟、乃至示現 種種形相、逆順境界。與其同事化令成佛。皆依無始淸淨願力。若諸末世一切衆生 於大圓覺起增上心當發菩薩淸淨大願。應作是言: 願我今者住佛圓覺求善知識、莫 値外道及與二乘。依願修行漸斷諸障。障盡、願滿、便登解脫淸淨法殿、證大圓 覺妙莊嚴域。爾時世尊、欲重宣此義而說偈言。
"Good sons, it is only through their Greatly Compassionate expedient means that bodhisattvas enter the secular world, awakening the unenlightened, manifesting various forms and shapes, functioning in agreeable and disagreeable circumstances. It is only relying on the beginningless pure power of their vow to save all beings that they physically work together with these people and cause them to accomplish Buddhahood. Any sentient being of the degenerate age who would arouse the mind intensified toward great Perfect Enlightenment, must arouse the pure great determination of the bodhisattvas. He should say 'I hereby vow to dwell in the Perfect Enlightenment of the Buddha, to seek Genuine Teachers and not to plant roots with heterodox paths or practitioners of the Two Vehicles.' Practicing based on this vow, you sever the hindrances one by one. When the hindrances are gone, the vow is fulfilled. You will automatically ascend to the Pure Dharma Palace of Liberation, and actualize the marvelously adorned realm of Great Perfect Enlightenment."
Then the World Honored One, wanting to restate the gist of this, spoke a verse; he said:
Maitreya, you should know
That the non-attainment of great liberation
By all sentient beings
Is only due to desire;
Therefore they are drawn into birth and death.
If you can separate yourself from like and dislike,
As well as desire, hatred and ignorance
You will all perfect the Buddha's way
And permanently destroy the Two Hindrances,
Without needing any "distinctions in nature."
Seek a teacher who has the correct awakening
Practice the vow to arouse the bodhi-mind
Rely on Great Nirvana.
The bodhisattvas in the ten directions
All appear in the world of saṃsāra
Relying on the Greatly Compassionate vow.
As well as sentient beings of the degenerate age
Should strive to eliminate all attached views
And directly return to Great Perfect Enlightenment.
6. Pure Wisdom Bodhisattva 淸淨慧菩薩[Chinese Source Text]
於是淸淨慧菩薩在大衆中、卽從座起。頂禮佛足右繞三匝。 長跪叉手而白佛言: 大悲世尊。爲我等輩廣說如是不思議事、本所不見本所不聞。 我等今者蒙佛善誘、身心泰然、得大饒益。願爲諸來一切法衆重宣法王圓滿覺性。 一切衆生及諸菩薩､如來世尊、所證所得云何差別? 令末世衆生聞此聖教、隨順 開悟漸次能入。作是語已、五體投地。如是三請終而復始。
Then the bodhisattva Pure Wisdom rose from his seat in the great assembly. He bowed his head to the Buddha's feet, and circumambulated him three times to the right. He then knelt down with his hands clasped and addressed the Buddha saying: "Greatly Compassionate World Honored One; you have magnanimously explained for all of our group this inconceivable matter which was originally not seen and originally not heard. We who are presently here and have received your superb instruction have gained composure of body and mind, and received great benefit. I would like to request this: would you re-explain the nature of the Perfect Fulfilling Enlightenment of the King of the Dharma for those who have come for your teaching? What differences are there between that which is grasped and actualized by sentient beings, bodhisattvas and World Honored Tathāgatas? Please let sentient beings of the degenerate age hear this sagely teaching that they may conform to it, awaken through it and gradually become capable of entering." Having said this, he prostrated fully to the ground. He asked in this way three times in succession.[Chinese Source Text]
爾時世尊 吿淸淨慧菩薩言: 善哉、善哉。善男子、汝等乃 能爲末世衆生請問如來漸次差別。汝今諦聽 、當爲汝說。時淸淨慧菩薩奉教歡喜、 及諸大衆默然而聽。
Then the World Honored One, addressing the bodhisattva Pure Wisdom, said: "Excellent, excellent! Good son, you have asked well for the bodhisattvas and sentient beings of the degenerate age about the Tathāgata's distinctions in level. Now listen well, and I shall explain these for you." The bodhisattva Pure Wisdom received this instruction with reverence and great joy. All the members of the great assembly became silent and listened.[Chinese Source Text]
善男子、圓覺自性非性、性有循諸性起。無取無證。於實相 中、實無菩薩及諸衆生。何以故? 菩薩衆生皆是幻化、幻化滅故無取證者。譬如 眼根不自見眼、性自平等無平等者。衆生迷倒、未能除滅一切幻化。於滅未滅、妄 功用中便顯差別。若得如來寂滅隨順、實無寂滅及寂滅者。
"Good sons, although the self-nature of Perfect Enlightenment is not a nature (like the previously described five natures of the Chapter of Maitreya), nonetheless, a nature exists which is concomitant with the arising of all natures. But there is neither acquisition nor actualization of it. From the point of view of reality, there are actually neither bodhisattvas nor sentient beings. Why? Bodhisattvas and sentient beings are nothing but illusory appearances, and since illusory appearances are erased, there is neither 'acquirer' nor 'actualizer.' It is like the eye not being able to see itself: in the nature's own equality, there is nothing that is 'equal.' Sentient beings are thoroughly confused and are unable to rid themselves of all illusory appearances. Since they have not extinguished [the mark of] cessation, in illusory activity they automatically make discriminations. If they attain accordance with the cessation of the Tathāgata, there is really neither cessation nor person who brings cessation about."[Chinese Source Text]
善男子、一切衆生從無始來由妄想我及愛我者、曾不知念念 生滅、故起憎愛、耽著五欲。若遇善友教令開悟淨圓覺性。發明起滅卽知此心性自 勞慮。若復有人勞慮永斷得法界淨、卽彼淨解爲自障礙。故於圓覺而不自在。此名 凡夫隨順覺性。
"Good sons, all sentient beings have, because of a deludedly conceived 'self' and attachment to that self, beginninglessly never known moment-to-moment arising and cessation for themselves; therefore they arise likes and dislikes, and become addicted to the objects in the five sense fields. If they meet a Genuine Teacher, he will awaken them to the essence of pure Perfect Enlightenment. Discovering arising and cessation, they will directly know that this mind's very nature is that of anxiety. There may be a person who permanently severs that anxiety and experiences the purity of the realm of reality, but who allows his understanding of purity in turn to become a hindrance. This person is tending towards Perfect Enlightenment but is not perfectly free. He is called a 'worldling who is according with the nature of enlightenment.' "[Chinese Source Text]
善男子、一切菩薩見解爲礙｡ 雖斷解礙、猶住見覺。覺礙爲 礙而不自在。此名菩薩未入地者隨順覺性。善男子、有照有覺倶名障礙、是故菩薩 常覺不住。照與照者同時寂滅。譬如有人自斷其首。首已斷故無能斷者。則以礙心 自滅諸礙。礙已斷滅無滅礙者。此名菩薩已入地者隨順覺性。善男子、一切障礙卽 究竟覺。得念失念無非解脫。成法破法皆名涅槃。智慧愚癡痛爲般若。菩薩外道所 成就法同是菩提。無明眞如無異境界。諸戒定慧及淫怒癡倶是梵行。衆生國土同一 法性。地獄天宮皆爲淨土。友性無性齊成佛道。一切煩惱畢竟解脫。法界海慧照了 諸相猶如虛空。此名如來隨順覺性。
"Good sons, all bodhisattvas see their understanding as an obstruction. But even if they eliminate the 'understanding-obstruction' they still abide in a view of enlightenment. This 'enlightenment-obstruction' becomes a hindrance and they are not perfectly free. They are called bodhisattvas who have not yet entered the bodhisattva grounds who are according with the nature of enlightenment."
"Good sons, since the possession of illumination and enlightenment are termed together as "hindrance" and 'obstruction,' the bodhisattva is always enlightened without abiding. Illumination and illuminator simultaneously vanish. It is like the case of a person who cuts off his own head—when the head is cut off, there is no longer any 'cutter.' Hence the use of the obstructing mind to eliminate all obstructions: when obstructions have been eliminated, there is no one to eliminate obstructions. These are called 'bodhisattvas who have entered the bodhisattva grounds who are according with the nature of enlightenment.' "
"Good sons, all hindrances are none other than ultimate enlightenment. Whether you attain mindfulness or lose mindfulness, there is no non-liberation. Establishing the Dharma and refuting the Dharma are both called nirvana; wisdom and folly are equally prajna; the method that is perfected by bodhisattvas and false teachers is the same bodhi; ignorance and suchness are not different realms; morality, concentration and wisdom, as well as desire, hatred and ignorance are all divine practices; sentient beings and lands share the same dharma nature; hell and heaven are both the Pure Land; those having Buddha-nature and those not having it equally accomplish the Buddha's enlightenment. All defilements are ultimately liberation. The reality-realms's ocean-like wisdom completely illumines all marks to be just like empty space. This is called 'the Tathāgata's accordance with the nature of enlightenment.' "[Chinese Source Text]
善男子、但諸菩薩及末世衆生居一切時、不起妄念。於諸妄心、亦不息滅。住妄想 境、不加了知。於無了知、不辨眞實。彼諸衆生聞是法門、信解受持不生驚畏、是 則名爲隨順覺性。善男子、汝等當知如是衆生已曾供養百千萬億恆河沙諸佛及大菩 薩、植衆德本。佛說是人名爲成就一切種智。爾時世尊、欲重宣此義而說偈言。
"Good sons, if all bodhisattvas and sentient beings of the degenerate age would merely do this: at all times, not arise false thoughts; in false states of mind, not strive for cessation; when abiding in false objects, not try to impose a complete understanding; while lacking complete understanding, not try to analyze true reality. If these sentient beings, hearing this teaching, believe, understand, assimilate and remember it without being shocked or frightened by it, they are said to be 'according with the nature of enlightenment.' "
"Good sons, you should all be aware that these sentient beings have already made offerings to myriads of Buddhas a quintillion times as numerous as the grains of sand in the Ganges river, and have cultivated their roots of virtue with as many great bodhisattvas. I call these people 'fully developed in omniscience.' "
Then the World Honored One, wanting to restate the gist of this, composed a verse. He said:
Pure Wisdom, you should know
The nature of perfect bodhi
Has no acquisition, no actualization
Neither bodhisattva nor sentient being.
Yet between the times of enlightenment and non-enlightenment
There are differences in level.
Sentient beings are obstructed by their understanding;
Bodhisattvas are not free from enlightenment.
Entering the bodhisattva stages they are forever tranquil
And do not abide in any mark.
Great enlightenment fully includes everything
And is called "pervasively according."
Sentient beings of the degenerate age
Whose minds do not arise falsity
"Appearing in the world as bodhisattvas."
They have made offerings to countless buddhas
And are already replete with virtuous merit.
Even though there are many expedient teaching methods
As a sum, they are called "the wisdom that reaches everything."
7. Power and Virtue Unhindered Bodhisattva 威德自在菩薩[Chinese Source Text]
於是威德自在菩薩在大衆中、卽從座起。頂禮佛足、右繞三 匝。長跪叉手而白佛言: 大悲世尊。廣爲我等分別如是隨順覺性、令諸菩薩覺心光 明、承佛圓音、不因修習而得善利。世尊、譬如大城外有四門。隨方來者非止一路。 一切菩薩莊嚴佛國及成菩提非一方便。惟願世尊廣爲我等宣說一切方便漸次。幷修 行人總有幾種? 了此會菩薩及末世衆生求大乘者速得開悟、遊戲如來大寂滅海。 作是語已、五體投地。如是三請終而復始。
Then the bodhisattva Power and Virtue Unhindered arose from his seat in the great assembly. He bowed to the feet of the Buddha and circumambulated him three times to the right. He then knelt down with his hands clasped and addressed the Buddha saying: "Greatly Compassionate World Honored One, you have analyzed for us at length this accordance with the enlightened nature, causing the enlightened minds of the bodhisattvas to effloresce and receive the Buddha's Perfect Voice, and causing them to receive excellent benefit which is not caused by religious practice. World Honored One, it is like a great city which has four gates on its exterior—those who come from various directions are not limited to one path. Similarly, all bodhisattvas who adorn Buddha-lands and who perfect enlightened wisdom are not limited to a single expedient method. World Honored One, my only wish is that you explain in detail for us the gradations of all the expedient methods. In general, how many kinds of religious practitioners are there? Please allow the bodhisattvas and sentient beings of the degenerate age who are seeking the great vehicle to quickly attain awakening and to sport about in the Tathāgata's great ocean of cessation-extinction." Saying this, he prostrated to the ground. He asked this question three times in succession.[Chinese Source Text]
爾時世尊 吿威德自在菩薩言: 善哉、善哉。善男子、汝等 乃能爲諸菩薩及末世衆生問於如來如是方便。汝今諦聽、當爲汝說。時威德自在菩 薩奉教歡喜、及諸大衆默然而聽。善男子、無上妙覺遍諸十方。出生如來與一切法 同體平等。於諸修行實無有二。方便隨順其數無量。圓攝諸歸、循性差別當有三種。
Then the World Honored One, addressing the bodhisattva Power and Virtue Unhindered, said:
"Excellent, excellent! Good son, you have questioned well for the bodhisattvas and sentient beings of the degenerate age about these expedient methods of the Tathāgata. Listen well now, and I shall explain them for you." The bodhisattva Power and Virtue Unhindered received this teaching with awe and joy; all those in the great crowd became silent and listened.
"Good sons, unsurpassed marvelous enlightenment pervades all the ten directions. It gives birth to all tathāgatas, who share the same equal essence with all dharmas. Thus, as far as the various practices are concerned, there is in reality, no duality. Nonetheless, the expedient methods which conform to Perfect Enlightenment are numberless. Among these, there are three general types which all practitioners rely on, according to the difference in their inclination."[Chinese Source Text]
善男子、若諸菩薩悟淨圓覺、以淨覺心取靜爲行。由澄諸念 覺識煩動、靜慧發生。身心客塵從此永滅、便能內發寂靜輕安。由寂靜故、十方世 界諸如來心於中顯現、如鏡中像。此方便者名奢摩他。
"Good sons, some bodhisattvas awaken pure Perfect Enlightenment, and using the mind of pure enlightenment take quiescence as their practice. Then, by settling all thoughts they become aware of the agitated motion of the consciousness, and thus produce quiescent wisdom. From this, the mind, the body and external objects are permanently extinguished and they directly generate quiescent pliancy from within themselves. Because of this cessation and quiescence, the minds of all the tathāgatas in all the worlds in the ten directions are made manifest, just like the images in a mirror. This expedient method is called śamatha."[Chinese Source Text]
善男子、若諸菩薩悟淨圓覺、以淨覺心、知覺心性及與根塵 皆因幻化。卽起諸幻以除幻者。變化諸幻而開幻衆。由起幻故便能內發大悲輕安。 一切菩薩從此起行漸次增進。彼觀幻者非同幻故、非同幻觀。皆是幻故幻相永離。 是諸菩薩所圓妙行如土長苗。此方便者名三摩鉢提。
"Good sons, some bodhisattvas awaken pure Perfect Enlightenment, then using the pure enlightened mind, they completely realize that the nature of mind as well as the faculties and objects are all based on illusory transformations. Then here they produce various illusions in order to remove illusion. Creating (transforming) all illusions, they enlighten the illusory multitude. From the production of illusion they are able to arouse great compassionate pliancy within. All bodhisattvas who follow this 'arising practice' gradually advance. Since the 'meditation on illusion' is not the same as illusion, it is also not the same as 'illusory observation.' Since both are [recognized as] illusory, illusory marks are permanently removed. This marvelous practice that is perfected by bodhisattvas is like a shoot growing out of the ground. This expedient method is called samapatti."[Chinese Source Text]
善男子、若諸菩薩悟淨圓覺、以淨覺心不取幻化及諸靜相、 了知身心皆爲礙。無知覺明不依諸礙、永得超過礙無礙境、受用世界及與身心、 相在塵域。如器中鍠、聲出于外。煩惱涅槃不相留礙。便能內發寂滅輕安。妙覺 隨順寂滅境界自他身心所不能及。衆生壽命皆爲浮相。此方便者名爲禪那。
"Good sons, some bodhisattvas awaken pure Perfect Enlightenment, and using the pure enlightened mind, do not attach to illusory transformation or the marks of quiescence, and fully realize body and mind both to be obstructions. Without awareness of the illumination of enlightenment (of śamatha) and without depending on all sorts of obstructions (the illusions analyzed in samapatti), they eternally transcend realms of obstruction and non-obstruction, receiving and using the world as well as body and mind, whose marks abide in the objective realm. It is comparable to the ringing sound in a bell which penetrates to the outside. Affliction and nirvana not hindering each other, they are directly enabled to produce the pliancy of cessation-extinction from within. Accordance with marvelous enlightenment and the realm of cessation and extinction is something that self and other, body and mind are unable to reach. Sentient beings and life are all just floating concepts. This expedient method is called dhyāna."[Chinese Source Text]
"Good sons, these three practices are all close accordance with Perfect Enlightenment; the tathāgatas in the ten directions achieve Buddhahood depending upon these, and all the various and sundry expedient methods of the bodhisattvas of the ten directions, with all their similarities and differences are without exception derived from these three activities. If you perfectly actualize these, that is the same as perfectly actualizing enlightenment."
"Good sons, if there were a person who cultivated the sagely path and elevated a quadrillion people to the stage of arhat and solitary realizer , he would not be equal to the person who heard this unobstructed teaching of Perfect Enlightenment and practiced it for only an instant."
Then the World Honored One, desiring to reiterate the gist of this, spoke a verse. He said:
Power-Virtue, you should know
Even though the unsurpassed mind of great enlightenment
Originally has not even two marks.
The expedient methods for according with it
When I explain them according to general type,
There are three kinds:
Is like a mirror reflecting all images;
Is like a shoot growing out of the ground;
Dhyāna is only cessation-extinction
Like the sound in the bell.
These three kinds of marvelous dharma-practices
Are all accordance with enlightenment.
The tathāgatas in the ten directions
As well as all the great bodhisattvas
Are able to attain the Dao based on these.
The full actualization of these three activities
Is called "absolute nirvana."
8. Voice of Discernment Bodhisattva 辨音菩薩[Chinese Source Text]
於是辨音菩薩在大衆中、卽從座起。頂禮佛足、右繞三匝、 長跪叉手而白佛言: 大悲世尊。如是法門甚爲希有。世尊、此諸方便一切菩薩於圓 覺門有幾修習? 願爲大衆及末世衆生方便開示、了悟實相。作是語已、五體投地。 如是三請終而復始。
Then the bodhisattva Voice of Discernment rose from his seat in the great assembly, and bowed to the Buddha's feet. He bowed to the feet of the Buddha and circumambulated him three times to the right. He then knelt down with his hands clasped and addressed the Buddha saying: "Greatly Compassionate World Honored One, this teaching is quite wondrous! World Honored One, for all the bodhisattvas engaged in the teaching and practice of Perfect Enlightenment, how many different kinds of these expedient methods are there? I beseech you to use expedient methods to teach those at this great assembly and sentient beings of the degenerate age, and cause them to awaken to the marks of reality." Saying this, he prostrated to the ground. He asked this question three times in succession.[Chinese Source Text]
爾時世尊、吿辨音菩薩言: 善哉、善哉。善男子、汝等乃能 爲諸大衆及末世衆生問於如來如是修習。汝今諦聽、當爲汝說。時辨音菩薩奉教歡 喜、及諸大衆默然而聽。善男子、一切如來圓覺淸淨本無修習及修習者。一切菩薩 及末世衆生依於未覺幻力修習。爾時便有二十五種淸淨定輪。
Then the World Honored One, addressing the bodhisattva Voice of Discernment, said: "Excellent, excellent! Good son; you have questioned well for the bodhisattvas and sentient beings of the degenerate age about the various practices of the Tathāgata. Now listen well, and I shall explain for you." The bodhisattva Voice of Discernment received this teaching with reverence and joy. All those in the great crowd became silent and listened.
"Good sons, the purity of the Perfect Enlightenment of all tathāgatas originally has neither practice nor practitioner. When they practice, all bodhisattvas and sentient beings of the degenerate age depend upon the power of unenlightened illusion. At that time (the time of practice dependent upon illusion) there are twenty-five kinds of pure meditation applications."[Chinese Source Text]
若諸菩薩唯取極靜、由靜力故永斷煩惱究竟成就、不起于座 便入涅槃。此菩薩者名單修奢摩他。若諸菩薩唯觀如幻、以佛力故變化世界種種作 用、備行菩薩淸淨妙行、於陀羅尼不失寂念及諸靜慧。此菩薩者名單修三摩鉢提。 若諸菩薩唯滅諸幻不取作用獨斷煩惱、煩惱斷滅便證實相。此菩薩者名單修禪那。
"Some bodhisattvas exclusively grasp ultimate quiescence, and through the power of quiescence permanently sever affliction absolutely and perfectly, and directly enter nirvana without rising from their seats. These bodhisattvas are called practitioners of śamatha only."
"Some bodhisattvas exclusively contemplate all-as-illusion, and by means of Buddha-power transform the world and carry out various activities, thoroughly putting into operation all the marvelous pure bodhisattva practices. In all continuous concentrations they do not fail in cessation of thought and quiescent wisdom. These bodhisattvas are called practitioners of samapatti only."
"Some bodhisattvas exclusively extinguish all illusions, and without activity in the world individually sever affliction. Affliction completely severed, they directly actualize the marks of reality. These bodhisattvas are call practitioners of dhyāna only."[Chinese Source Text]
若諸菩薩先取至靜、以靜慧心照諸幻者、便於是中起菩薩行。 此菩薩者名先修奢摩他後修三摩鉢提。若諸菩薩以靜慧故證至靜性、便斷煩惱永出 生死。此菩薩者名先修奢摩他後修禪那。 若諸菩薩以寂靜慧復現幻力種種變化度 諸衆生、後斷煩惱而入寂滅。此菩薩者名先修奢摩他中修三摩鉢提後修禪那。若諸 菩薩以至靜力斷煩惱已、後起菩薩淸淨妙行度諸衆生。此菩薩者名先修奢摩他中修 禪那後修三摩鉢提。若諸菩薩以至靜力心斷煩惱、復度衆生建立境界。此菩薩者名 先修奢摩他齊修三摩鉢提禪那。若諸菩薩以至靜力資發變化後斷煩惱。此菩薩者名 齊修奢摩他三摩鉢提後修禪那。若諸菩薩以至靜力用資寂滅後起作用變化世界。此 菩薩者名齊修奢摩他禪那後修三摩鉢提。
"Some bodhisattvas first attain perfect quiescence, and through the mind of quiescent wisdom shed light on all illusions and directly within these illusions arise the bodhisattva practices. These bodhisattvas are called practitioners of śamatha first and samapatti next."
"Some bodhisattvas actualize the perfectly quiescent nature through quiescent wisdom, and then directly sever affliction and permanently escape from birth and death. These bodhisattvas are called practitioners of śamatha first and dhyāna next."
"Some bodhisattvas use cessation-quiescent wisdom to re-manifest illusion-power and establish all kinds of transformations to save sentient beings. Subsequently they sever affliction and enter cessation-extinction. These bodhisattvas are called practitioners of śamatha first, samapatti next, and dhyāna last."
"Some bodhisattvas use the power of perfect quiescence to sever all affliction. They then arise the pure, marvelous practices of the bodhisattvas and save all sentient beings. These bodhisattvas are called practitioners of śamatha first, dhyāna next and samapatti last."
"Some bodhisattvas use the mind empowered by perfect quiescence to sever affliction and then save sentient beings and establish objective realms. These bodhisattvas are called practitioners of śamatha first and subsequent simultaneous samapatti and dhyāna."
"Some bodhisattvas use the power of perfect quiescence to aid in the initiation of transformations, then subsequently sever afflictions. These bodhisattvas are called practitioners of simultaneous śamatha and samapatti, followed by the practice of dhyāna."
"Some bodhisattvas use perfect quiescence to aid in extinction, and subsequently carry out activities to transform the world. These bodhisattvas are called practitioners of simultaneous śamatha and dhyāna, who subsequently practice samapatti."[Chinese Source Text]
若諸菩薩以變化力種種隨順而取至靜、此菩薩者名先修三摩 鉢提後修奢摩他。若諸菩薩以變化力種種境界而取寂滅、此菩薩者名先修三摩鉢提 後修禪那。若諸菩薩以變化力而作佛事安住寂靜而斷煩惱、此菩薩者名先修三摩鉢 提中修奢摩他後修禪那。若諸菩薩以變化力無礙作用斷煩惱故安住至靜、此菩薩者 名先修三摩鉢提中修禪那後修奢摩他。若諸菩薩以變化力方便作用至靜寂滅二倶隨 順、此菩薩者名先修三摩鉢提齊修奢摩他禪那。若諸菩薩以變化力種種起用資於至 靜後斷煩惱、此菩薩者名齊修三摩鉢提奢摩他後修禪那。若諸菩薩以變化力資於寂 滅後住淸淨無作靜慮、此菩薩者名齊修三摩鉢提禪那後修奢摩他。
"Some bodhisattvas use transformation power to make various kinds of accordance, and thereby attain perfect quiescence. These bodhisattvas are called practitioners of samapatti first and śamatha next."
"Some bodhisattvas use transformation power to create various realms, and thereby attain cessation-extinction. These bodhisattvas are called practitioners of samapatti first and dhyāna next."
"Some bodhisattvas use transformation power to carry out Buddha-works. Then, abiding in cessation-quiescence, they sever affliction. These bodhisattvas are called practitioners of samapatti first, śamatha next and dhyāna last."
"Some bodhisattvas use transformation power's unhindered function to sever affliction, and are therefore able to abide in perfect quiescence. These bodhisattvas are called practitioners of samapatti first, dhyāna next and śamatha last."
"Some bodhisattvas use transformation power for the activity of expedient teaching and then practice within both perfect quiescence and extinction together. These bodhisattvas are called practitioners of samapatti first, followed by simultaneous śamatha and dhyāna."
"Some bodhisattvas use the various arising functions of transformation power to aid in the attainment of perfect quiescence and subsequently sever affliction. These bodhisattvas are called practitioners of simultaneous samapatti and śamatha, followed by dhyāna."
"Some bodhisattvas use transformation power to aid in extinction, and subsequently abide in pure uncreated quiescence of thought. These bodhisattvas are called practitioners of simultaneous samapatti and dhyāna followed by śamatha."[Chinese Source Text]
若諸菩薩以寂滅力而起至靜住於淸淨、此菩薩者名先修禪那 後修奢摩他。若諸菩薩以寂滅力而起作用於一切境, 寂用隨順、此菩薩者名先修禪 那後修三摩鉢提。若諸菩薩以寂滅力種種自性安於靜慮而起變化、此菩薩者名先修 禪那中修奢摩他後修三摩鉢提。若諸菩薩以寂滅力無作自性起於作用淸淨境界歸於 靜慮、此菩薩者名先修禪那中修三摩鉢提後修奢摩他。若諸菩薩以寂滅力種種淸淨 而住靜慮起於變化、此菩薩者名先修禪那齊修奢摩他三摩鉢提。若諸菩薩以寂滅力 資於至靜而起變化、此菩薩者名齊修禪那奢摩他後修三摩鉢提。若諸菩薩以寂滅力 資於變化而起至靜淸明境慧、此菩薩者名齊修禪那三摩鉢提後修奢摩他。
"Some bodhisattvas use the power of extinction to arise perfect quiescence and abide in purity. These bodhisattvas are called practitioners of dhyāna first and śamatha next."
"Some bodhisattvas use the power of extinction, yet enter activity, and this negating function is practiced within all realms. These bodhisattvas are called practitioners of dhyāna first and samapatti next."
"Some bodhisattvas use the various self natures of extinction power, and abiding in mental quiescence, produce transformations. These bodhisattvas are called practitioners of dhyāna first, śamatha next and samapatti last."
"Some bodhisattvas use the inactive self-nature of extinction power to engage in activity, then purify the objective realm and return to quiescence. These bodhisattvas are called practitioners of dhyāna first, samapatti next and śamatha last."
"Some bodhisattvas use the various purity of extinction power, then, abiding in mental equipoise, they produce transformations. These bodhisattvas are called practitioners of dhyāna first, followed by simultaneous śamatha and samapatti."
"Some bodhisattvas use extinction power to aid in the attainment of quiescence, and then give rise to transformations. These bodhisattvas are called practitioners of simultaneous dhyāna and śamatha, followed by samapatti."
"Some bodhisattvas use extinction power to aid in transformation, producing perfect quiescence which purifies and illuminates the world. These bodhisattvas are called simultaneous practitioners of dhyāna and samapatti, followed by śamatha."[Chinese Source Text]
若諸菩薩以圓覺慧、圓合一切於諸性相無離覺性｡ 此菩薩者 名爲圓修三種自性淸淨隨順。此菩薩者名爲圓修三種自性淸淨隨順。是名菩薩二十 五輪。善男子、修多羅教如標月指。若復見月了知所標畢竟非月。一切如來種種言 說開示菩薩亦復如是。一切菩薩修行如是。
"Some bodhisattvas, using the wisdom of Perfect Enlightenment, harmoniously combine all of these, and in connection with all natures and characteristics, never separate from the enlightened nature. These bodhisattvas are called 'practitioners of the three kinds of accordance with the purity of the self-nature.' "
"Good sons, these are called 'the twenty-five applications' of the bodhisattvas. The teachings of the sutras are like the finger pointing to the moon. If you also look at the moon and completely understand, then that which is pointing is ultimately not the moon. All the various words and explanations of the Tathāgata that are used to awaken bodhisattvas are also like this. All bodhisattvas practice like this."[Chinese Source Text]
若諸菩薩及末世衆生依此輪者、當持梵行寂靜思惟求哀懺悔。經三七日、於二十五 輪各安標記。至心求哀、隨手結取。依結開示便知頓漸。一念疑悔卽不成就。爾時 世尊、欲重宣此義而說偈言。
無礙淸 淨慧 皆依禪定生
三法頓漸修 有二十五 種
唯除 頓覺人 幷法不隨順
常當持此輪 隨順勤 修習
"If you bodhisattvas and sentient beings of the degenerate age deign to use these 'applications,' you must maintain practices of purity, quiescence and contemplation and sincerely repent. Then passing through three weeks, you settle upon whichever of the twenty-five applications is indicated on your lot. With your whole mind and a repentant spirit, immediately choose one. Depending on what is indicated on the chosen lot, you will immediately know whether you are to practice the sudden or gradual. If there is one moment of doubt you will not be able to accomplish your assigned application."
Then the World Honored One, desiring to reiterate the gist of this, spoke a verse. He said:
Voice of Discernment, you should know,
Unobstructed pure wisdom
Is without exception, produced from meditation.
The so-called śamatha
samapatti and dhyāna—
The three methods of sudden and gradual practice,
Have twenty-five applications.
There are none among the tathāgatas of the ten directions
And the practitioners of the three worlds
Who do not rely upon these methods
In their attainment of perfection of bodhi—
Except for suddenly enlightened people
And those who have nothing to do with the dharma.
And sentient beings of the degenerate age,
Should always embrace these applications,
Following them, endeavoring to practice them.
Relying on the power of the Buddha's great compassion,
Before long they will actualize nirvana.
9. Purifier of all Karmic Hindrances Bodhisattva 淨諸業障菩薩[Chinese Source Text]
於是淨諸業障菩薩在大衆中、卽從座起。頂禮佛足右繞三匝、 長跪叉手而白佛言: 大悲世尊。爲我等輩廣說如是不思議事、一切如來因地行相、 令諸大衆得未曾有。覩見調御歷恆沙劫勤苦境界一切功用猶如一念。我等菩薩深自 慶慰。世尊、若此覺心本性淸淨、因何染汚使諸衆生迷悶不入? 唯願如來廣爲我 等開示法性、令此大衆及末世衆生作將來眼。說是語已、五體投地。如是三請終而 復始。
Then the bodhisattva Purifier of All Karmic Hindrances arose from his seat in the great assembly. He bowed to the Buddha's feet, and circumambulated him three times to the right. He then knelt down with his hands clasped and addressed the Buddha, saying: "Greatly Compassionate World Honored One, you have explained at length for all of us this inconceivable matter of the aspects of the practice of the causal stage of all Tathāgatas, enabling all in the great assembly to gain that which they have never had. Having had this chance to see the Tamer, all of their passage through realms of suffering for countless kalpas seems as if it were but an instant of thought. We bodhisattvas have been greatly encouraged."
World Honored One, if this enlightened mind is originally pure, what kind of defilements cause sentient beings to be suffer in delusion and not enter? My only request is that you thoroughly reveal the nature of phenomena [dharmas], and cause those in this great assembly and sentient beings of the degenerate age to create the "future eye." After finishing this speech, he prostrated himself to the ground. He asked this three times in succession.[Chinese Source Text]
爾時世尊吿淨諸業障菩薩言: 善哉、善哉。善男子、汝等乃 能爲諸大衆及末世衆生諮問如來如是方便。汝今諦聽、當爲汝說。時淨諸業障菩 薩奉教歡喜、及諸大衆默然而聽。
Then the World Honored One, addressing the bodhisattva Purifier of All Karmic Hindrances, said: "Excellent, excellent! Good son, you have asked well for sentient beings of the degenerate age about the skillful methods of the Tathāgata. Listen well, and I shall explain for you." The bodhisattva Purifier of All Karmic Hindrances reverently and joyfully received this teaching; those in the great assembly became silent and listened.[Chinese Source Text]
善男子、一切衆生從無始來、妄想執有我人衆生及與壽命、 認四顚倒爲實我體。由此便生憎愛二境。於虛妄體重執虛妄。二妄相依生妄業道。 有妄業故妄見流轉。厭流轉者妄見涅槃。由此不能入淸淨覺。非覺違拒諸能入者。 有諸能入非覺入故。是故動念及與息念皆歸迷悶。何以故? 由有無始本起無明爲 己主宰、一切衆生生無慧目。身心等性皆是無明。譬如有人不自斷命。是故當知有 愛我者。我與隨順非隨順者、便生憎怨。爲憎愛心養無明故、相續求道、皆不成就。
"Good sons, from beginningless time all sentient beings deludedly conceive and attach to the existence of 'self,' 'person,' 'sentient being' and 'lifespan' —they discern these four distortions to be a real self-essence."
"From this they directly give rise to the two states of like and dislike. In this false essence, they again attach to falsehood. These two delusions interact to produce the path of deluded activity [karma], and since there is deluded karma, they deludedly perceive transmigration. Those who come to dislike saṃsāra deludedly perceive nirvana, and because of this are unable to enter pure enlightenment. It is not that enlightenment rejects those who are capable of entry—rather, it is because those capable of entry do not awaken and enter. Therefore whether one's thoughts are jumping around or silenced—both conditions ultimately revert to delusion. Why? Because there is beginningless originally arisen ignorance which becomes the subjective ego; thus all sentient beings produce the eye of ignorance. The various natures of body, mind, etc., are nothing but ignorance. Take for example the person who does not want to end his own life. Therefore, you should know there is enjoyment of 'selfhood' when things go well. When things don't go as one likes, then hatred and anger arise. Since this mind of like/dislike nourishes ignorance, those who strive to cultivate the way never attain it."[Chinese Source Text]
善男子、云何我相? 謂諸衆生心所證者。善男子、譬如有人 百骸調適忽忘我身。四支弦緩、攝養乖方微加針艾、則知有我。是故證取方現我體。 善男子、其心乃至證於如來畢竟了知淸淨涅槃皆是我相。
"Good sons, what is the 'trace of self' ? It is that which is witnessed by the mind of sentient beings. Good sons, when you are in good health you naturally forget about your body. But when the body becomes sick, and you make an effort correct the infirmity, with the slightest application of moxibustion and acupuncture you are immediately aware of your existence as a self. Thus, it is only in reference to this 'witnessing' that you perceive and grasp to an apparent self-essence. Good sons, every kind of witnessing from this level up to the Tathāgata's perfect perception of pure nirvana, is all the 'trace of self.' "[Chinese Source Text]
善男子、云何人相? 謂諸衆生心悟證者。善男子、悟有我者 不復認我。所悟非我悟亦如是。悟已超過一切證者悉爲人相。善男子、其心乃至圓 悟涅槃倶是我者備殫證理心存少悟皆名人相。
"Good sons, what is the 'trace of person?' It is the cognition by sentient beings of the prior "witnessing." Good sons, once the self is cognized it is not again recognized in the same way. It is the same in the case where that which is cognized is non-self. This 'cognition' which has gone beyond every kind of 'witnessing,' is the 'trace of person.' Good sons, if, from this level of basic recognition of self up to the perfect recognition of nirvana as self, completely including the witnessing of principle, there remains in the mind even the smallest remainder of cognition, all are called the 'trace of person.' "[Chinese Source Text]
善男子、云何衆生相? 謂諸衆生心自證悟所不及者。善男子、 譬如有人作如是言: 我是衆生。則知彼人非我非彼。云何非我? 我是衆生、則非 是我。云何非彼? 我是衆生則非彼故。善男子、但諸衆生了證了悟皆爲我人而我 人相所不及者存有所了名衆生相。
"Good sons, what is the 'trace of sentient being?' It is that which is beyond the self- witnessing and cognition of the minds of all sentient beings. Good sons, take for example the person who says "I am a sentient being." What this person has called 'sentient being,' is neither self nor other. Why is it not self? Since self is 'sentient being,' it is not self. Why is it not other? Since the self is sentient being, therefore it is not other. Good sons, what sentient beings realize in witnessing and realize in cognition is nothing more than the traces of self and person. That which does not reach the traces of self and sentient being, yet which remains as realized, is the trace of sentient being."[Chinese Source Text]
善男子、云何壽命相? 謂諸衆生心照淸淨覺所了者。善男子、 一切業智所不自見猶如命根。如湯銷冰無別有冰知冰銷者。無我覺我亦復如是。善 男子、若心照見一切覺者皆爲塵垢。覺所覺者不離塵故名壽命相｡
"Good sons, what is the 'trace of lifespan?' This refers to that which sentient beings realize through the mind's illuminating pure awareness. Good Sons, that which is not perceivable by the totality of karmic wisdom is just like the life-faculty. It is like hot water melting ice: there is no discrimination of the existence of ice or knowledge of the ice's melting. The non-existence of a self and the awareness of a self are just like this. Good sons, when one sees with the mind's illumination, all these awarenesses are nothing but defilement. Since that of which the awarenesses are aware is not separate from defilement, it is called the 'trace of lifespan.' "[Chinese Source Text]
善男子、末世衆生不了四相、雖經多劫勤苦修道、但名有 爲。終不能成一切聖果。何以故? 認一切我爲涅槃故、有證有悟名成就故。譬如有 人認賊爲子。其家財寶終不成就。何以故? 有我愛者亦愛涅槃、伏我愛根爲涅槃 相。有憎我者亦憎生死、不知愛者眞生死故別憎生死､名不解脫。
"Good sons, sentient beings of the degenerate age do not perceive the Four Traces, and though they may struggle through many kalpas of difficult practice while cultivating the Dao, it is still only conditioned existence. They are ultimately incapable of consummating the fruits of sagehood."
Why? Since they regard these traces of self to be nirvana, and they regard their witnessing and cognition to be consummation of enlightenment. It is like a man who mistakes a thief for his son. His family's holdings will always come up short. Why? Because the lover of self also loves nirvana, and takes the suppression of self as the characteristic of nirvana. The hater of self also hates saṃsāra. Not knowing that it is the attached love itself that is actually saṃsāra, he singles out saṃsāra for hatred, calling it "non- liberation."[Chinese Source Text]
云何當知法不解脫? 善男子、彼末世衆生習菩提者以己微證 爲自淸淨。由未能盡我相根本。若復有人讚歎彼法卽生歡喜便欲濟度。若復誹謗彼 所得者、便生瞋恨。卽知我相堅固執持潛伏藏識。遊戲諸根、曾不間斷。善男子、 彼修道者不除我相、是故不能入淸淨覺。善男子、若知我空無毀我者。有我說法 我未斷故、衆生壽命亦復如是。
"How can you know this dharma as 'non-liberation?' Good sons, these sentient beings of the degenerate age who are practicing bodhi regard the ego's infinitesimal perception as their own purity, and are therefore unable to penetrate to the root of self-trace. If someone praises their [mistaken] dharma, then they will be overjoyed and immediately try to save him. But if someone criticizes their attainments, they will be filled with anger and resentment."
"Hence, you can know that the trace of self is being firmly held to; it is concealed in the storehouse consciousness and is playing freely throughout the faculties without interruption."
"Good sons, if these aspirants do not remove the trace of self, they will be unable to enter pure enlightenment. Good sons, if the emptiness of self is known, there can be no 'eliminator of self.' If, holding to self, you expound this dharma, it is because you have not yet eliminated self. It is the same with 'sentient being' and 'lifespan.' "[Chinese Source Text]
善男子、末世衆生說病爲法。是故名爲可憐愍者。雖勤精進 增益諸病、是故不能入淸淨覺。善男子、末世衆生不了四相、以如來解及所行 處爲自修行、終不成就。或有衆生未得謂得、未證謂證、見勝進者心生嫉妬。 由彼衆生未斷我愛、是故不能入淸淨覺。
"Good sons, sentient beings of the degenerate age mistakenly understand these diseases to be the dharma. Therefore they are called 'the pitiable.' Even though they struggle with great effort, they merely exacerbate their various diseases, and therefore are unable to enter pure enlightenment."
"Good sons, sentient beings of the degenerate age do not discern the Four Traces, and erroneously taking the understanding and practice of the Tathāgata to be their own practice, they ultimately do not accomplish enlightenment. Thus there are sentient beings who understand non-attainment to be attainment and regard non-actualization as actualization. When they see a genuine adept practitioner, they are filled with jealousy. It is exactly because these sentient beings do not sever their love of self that they are unable to enter pure enlightenment."[Chinese Source Text]
善男子、末世衆生希望成道無令求悟惟益多聞增長我見。但 當精勤降伏煩惱起大勇猛。未得令得未斷令斷。貪瞋愛慢諂曲嫉妬對境不生、彼我 恩愛一切寂滅。佛說是人漸次成就。求善知識不墮邪見。是故名爲正法末世。若於 所求別生憎愛、則不能入淸淨覺海。爾時世尊、欲重宣此義而說偈言。
"Good sons, sentient beings of the degenerate age hope for Buddhahood but do not exert themselves to achieve awakening; they merely extend their intellectual knowledge, further enhancing the view of self. What they should do is just endeavor to subdue the afflictions and arouse great courage: attain what they have not attained, sever what they have not severed. Not allowing the greed, anger, love, pride, flattery, perversion, jealousy and envy which are directed at the objective realm to arise, and extinguishing all love and attachment to self and other悠 call these people 'gradually consummated.' Finding a Genuine Teacher, you will not fall into mistaken views. Therefore it is called the 'true dharma in the degenerate age.' "
"But if you discriminate, and have a special feeling of desire or dislike regarding the [kind of teacher] you are seeking, you will be unable to enter the ocean of pure enlightenment."
Then the World Honored One, desiring to reiterate the gist of this, spoke a verse. He said:
Purifier of Karma, you should know
That because of attachment to and love of self
All sentient beings
Deludedly transmigrate without beginning.
Not removing four kinds of traces
They cannot accomplish bodhi.
Since love and hatred arise in the mind
And flattery and perversion remain in all thoughts
There is much delusion and grief;
You are unable to enter the citadel of enlightenment.
If you wish to be able to return to the enlightened realm,
First leave all desire, hatred and ignorance.
When the dharma of love does not remain in the mind
You can gradually Perfect Enlightenment.
The self originally does not exist:
How can love and hatred arise?
If this person seeks a Genuine Teacher
He will never fall into evil views.
But if "something separate to be sought" arises in his mind
There will ultimately be no consummation of enlightenment.
10. Universal Enlightenment Bodhisattva 普覺菩薩[Chinese Source Text]
於是普覺菩薩在大衆中、卽從座起。頂禮佛足、右繞三匝。 長跪叉手而白佛言: 大悲世尊。快說禪病令諸菩薩得未曾有。心意蕩然獲大安隱。 世尊、末世衆生去佛漸遠賢聖隱伏、邪法增熾。使諸衆生求何等人? 除去何病? 云何發心令彼羣盲不墮邪見? 作是語已、五體投地。如是三請終而復始。
Then the bodhisattva Universal Enlightenment arose from his seat in the great assembly. He bowed to the Buddha's feet and circumambulated three times to the right. He then knelt down with hands clasped and addressed the Buddha, saying: "Greatly Compassionate World-Honored One. You have explained clearly the meditation maladies, allowing the bodhisattvas to attain that which they have not yet experienced."
"Their consciousnesses have been completely stilled and they have attained great tranquillity. World Honored One, as the sentient being's departure from the age of the Buddha becomes gradually more distant, the sages and worthies conceal themselves, while the mistaken dharma grows and spreads. What kind of person should we have the sentient beings seek? On what kind of teachings should they rely? What kind of practice should they do? What kind of maladies should they remove, and what kind of resolution should we make, so as to prevent the blind multitude from falling into mistaken views?" Having said this, he prostrated himself to the ground. He asked this question three times in succession.[Chinese Source Text]
爾時世尊 吿普覺菩薩言: 善哉、善哉。善男子、汝等乃能 諮問如來如是修行、能施末世一切衆生無畏道眼、令彼衆生得成聖道。汝今諦聽、 當爲汝說。時普覺菩薩奉教歡喜、及諸大衆默然而聽。善男子、末世衆生將發大心、 求善知識。欲修行者、當求一切正知見人、心不住相、不著聲聞緣覺境界、雖現塵 勞心恆淸淨。示有諸過、讚歎梵行、不令衆生入不律儀。求如是人卽得成就阿耨 多羅三貘三菩提。末世衆生見如是人、應當供養不惜身命、況復摶財妻子眷屬。 彼善知識四威儀中常現淸淨乃至示現種種過患、心無 慢。若善男子於彼善友不起 惡念、卽能究竟成就正覺。心華發明照十方刹。
Then the World Honored One, addressing the bodhisattva Universal Enlightenment, said: "Excellent, excellent! Good Son, you have been able to question the Tathāgata on this kind practice which is able to impart to all sentient beings the fearless Eye of the Way and cause them to attain the sagely Way. Now listen well, and I shall teach you." The bodhisattva Universal Enlightenment received this teaching with great joy. Those in the great assembly became silent and listened.
Good Sons, sentient beings of the degenerate age must arouse "great mind" and seek Genuine Teachers. Those who want to practice should seek out only someone with correct insight, whose thoughts do not abide in characteristics, who is not attached to the realms of the arhats and solitary realizers, and whose mind is constantly pure even while manifesting the world's afflictions.
"Even while pointing out your various faults, he praises your practices of purity, and prevents you from breaking the precepts. If you find this kind of person, you can attain Unsurpassed Correct Universal True Enlightenment. Sentient beings of the degenerate age who meet this kind of person should make offerings to him, not sparing body or life, even as far as holding on to property, wife, children and retainers. This Genuine Teacher constantly demonstrates purity throughout the four postures. Although he points all kinds of errors and difficulties, his mind lacks pride. Good Sons, if you do not arouse any negative feelings toward this Good Friend, you will ultimately be able to accomplish Correct Enlightenment. Your mind-flower will blossom, illuminating the worlds of the ten directions."[Chinese Source Text]
善男子、彼善知識諸證妙法應離四病。云何四病? 一者作病。 若復有人作如是言、我於本心作種種行、欲求圓覺。彼圓覺性非作得故說名爲病。 二者任病。若復有人作如是言。我等今者不斷生死不求涅槃。涅槃生死無起滅念。 任彼一切隨諸法性、欲求圓覺。彼圓覺性非任有故、說名爲病。三者止病。若復有 人作如是言。我今自心永息諸念得一切性寂然平等、欲求圓覺。彼圓覺性非止合故、 說名爲病。四者滅病。若復有人作如是言。我今永斷一切煩惱、身心畢竟空無所有、 何況根塵虛妄境界一切永寂、欲求圓覺。彼圓覺性非寂相故、說名爲病。離四病者 則知淸淨。作是觀者名爲正觀。若他觀者名爲邪觀。
Good Sons, the subtle dharma that is actualized by this Genuine Teacher should be free from the Four Maladies. What are the Four Maladies? The first is the malady of "contrivance." Say, for example, there is someone who says "based on my original mind I shall carry out various practices" and wants to achieve Perfect Enlightenment. Since the nature of Perfect Enlightenment is not something which can be attained by contrivance, it is called a "malady."
The second is the "naturalist" malady. Say, for example there is someone who says "We should presently neither cut off saṃsāra nor seek nirvana. Saṃsāra and nirvana actually lack any conception of arising and ceasing. We should just naturally go along with the various natures of reality" and wants to achieve Perfect Enlightenment. Since the nature of Perfect Enlightenment does not come about through accepting things as they are, this is called a "malady."
The third is the "stopping" malady. Say, for example, there is someone who says "from my present thought, I shall permanently stop all thoughts and thus apprehend the cessation and equanimity of all natures" and wants to achieve Perfect Enlightenment. Since the nature of Perfect Enlightenment is not met through the stopping of thoughts, it is called a "malady."
The fourth is the "annihilation" malady. Say, for example, there is someone who says "I will now permanently annihilate all defilements. Body and mind are ultimately empty, lacking anything. How much more should all the false realms of the sense organs and their objects be permanently erased" and seeks Perfect Enlightenment. Since the characteristic of the nature of Perfect Enlightenment is not annihilation, it is called a "malady."
When you are free from the Four Maladies you will be aware of purity. The making of this observation is called "correct insight." Any other insight is called "mistaken insight."[Chinese Source Text]
善男子、末世衆生欲修行者應當盡命供養善友事善知識。彼 善知識欲來親近應斷慢。若復遠離應斷瞋恨。現逆順境猶如虛空。了知身心畢竟 平等、與諸衆生同體無異。如此修行方入圓覺。善男子、末世衆生不得成道由有無 始自他增愛一切種子、故未解脫。若復有人觀彼怨家如己父母、心無有二卽除諸病。 於諸法中自他增愛亦復如是。
"Good sons, sentient beings of the degenerate age should exhaust their life energies in making offerings to Good Buddhist Friends and serving Genuine Teachers. If the Genuine Teacher becomes close and familiar with you, you should not be proud. If he is distant, you should not be resentful. The states of unpleasantness and pleasantness are just like the empty sky. Fully realize that body and mind are ultimately equalized and that you share the same essence with all sentient beings without difference. If you practice in this way you will enter Perfect Enlightenment."
"Good sons, when sentient beings of the degenerate age are unable to accomplish the Way, it is because of the presence of beginningless seeds of self and other, like and dislike. Therefore they are not liberated. If there is someone who looks upon his enemy as the same as his father and mother謠hose mind completely lacks duality, then he will eliminate all maladies. Then within all dharmas, self and other, like and dislike will also be eliminated in the same way."[Chinese Source Text]
"Good Sons, all sentient beings of the degenerate age who want to seek Perfect Enlightenment should make their resolution, saying the following: 'I vow to cause every sentient being throughout the universe to enter the ultimate Perfect Enlightenment.' "
"Within that Perfect Enlightenment there is no attachment to 'enlightenment' nor are there any of the traces of self, person etc. If you make this kind of resolve, you will not fall into mistaken views."
Then the World Honored One, wanting to restate the gist of this, delivered a verse, saying:
Universal Enlightenment, you should know
That sentient beings of the degenerate age
Who desire to find a Genuine Teacher
Must look for one with the Right View
Whose mind is far removed from the Two Vehicles
Who does not break the precepts
And whose root of the precepts is constantly pure.
And in regard to the dharma has removed the Four Maladies,
Which are called contrivance, stopping, naturalism and annihilation.
If he becomes intimate with you, don't be proud
And if he is distant, don't be resentful.
Observing various realms, your mind will then produce the miraculous.
And if you leave home like the Buddha
You save all sentient beings
So that they ultimately enter Perfect Enlightenment.
Free from the traces such as "self" and "person"
You constantly rest in wisdom
You naturally attain transcendence of mistaken views
Actualizing enlightenment and parinirvana.
11. Perfect Enlightenment Bodhisattva 圓覺菩薩[Chinese Source Text]
於是圓覺菩薩在大衆中、卽從座起。頂禮佛足、右繞三匝。 長跪叉手而白佛言: 大悲世尊。爲我等輩廣說淨覺種種方便、令末世衆生有大增益。 世尊、我等今者已得開悟。若佛滅後末世衆生未得悟者、云何安居, 修此圓覺淸淨 境界? 此圓覺中三種淨觀以何爲首? 惟願大悲爲諸大衆及末世衆生施大饒益。作 是語已、五體投地。如是三請、終而復始。
Then the bodhisattva Perfect Enlightenment arose from his seat in the great assembly, bowed his head to the Buddha's feet and circumambulated him three times to the right. He knelt down with his hands clasped, and addressed the Buddha, saying: "Greatly Compassionate World Honored One. You have extensively explained pure enlightenment for us, as well as various expedient methods. You have caused the capacities of sentient beings of the degenerate age to be greatly quickened. World Honored One. Those of us present here have already awakened. But what about the case, after your passing away, of the sentient beings of the degenerate age who have not yet been able to awaken? How should they conduct meditation retreats to cultivate this pure realm of Perfect Enlightenment? And in the practice of the three meditations within Perfect Enlightenment, what are the initial steps? I only beg for your great compassion so that you will confer great benefit on the members of this great assembly and the sentient beings of the degenerate age." After saying this, he prostrated fully to the ground. He asked this question three times in succession.[Chinese Source Text]
爾時世尊吿圓覺菩薩言: 善哉、善哉。善男子、汝等乃能問 於如來如是方便、以大饒益、施諸衆生。汝今諦聽、當爲汝說。時圓覺菩薩 奉教 歡喜、及諸大衆默然而聽。
Then the World Honored One, addressing the bodhisattva Perfect Enlightenment, said: "Excellent! Excellent! Good Son, you have questioned well to the Tathāgata about these kind of expedient means in order to confer great benefit on the sentient beings. Now listen well, and I shall explain for you." The bodhisattva Perfect Enlightenment received this teaching with great joy. All those in the great assembly became silent and listened.[Chinese Source Text]
善男子、一切衆生若佛住世、若佛滅後、若法末時、有諸衆 生具大乘性、信佛祕密大圓覺心、欲修行者。若在伽藍安處徒衆有緣事故、隨分思 察如我已說。若復無有他事因緣、卽建道場當立期限。若立長限、百二十日。中 期百日。下期八十日、安置淨居。若佛現在當正思惟。若佛滅後施設形像、生正憶 念、還同如來常住之日。懸諸幡華、經三七日、稽首十方諸佛名字、求哀懺悔、 過三七日一向攝念、遇善境界得心輕安｡ 若經夏首三月安居、當爲淸淨菩薩止住、 心離聲聞、不假徒衆。至安居日卽於佛前作如是言: 我比丘比丘尼優婆塞優婆夷 某甲踞菩薩乘、修寂滅行、同入淸淨實相住持。以大圓覺爲我伽藍、身心安居平 等性智。涅槃自性無繫屬故、今我敬請不依聲聞。當於十方如來及大菩薩三月安居。 爲修菩薩無上妙覺大因緣故、不繫徒衆。善男子、此名菩薩示現安居過三期日、隨 往無礙。
"Good Sons, among all sentient beings, whether it is when the Buddha is alive, or after he has passed away, or even during the period of the degeneration of the dharma, there are a number who have the aptitude for Mahayana and who have faith in the Buddha's mysterious mind of great Perfect Enlightenment, and who want to practice it. If they are living in the temple with many other followers, then they have numerous commitments and so they should just analyze according to the situation, as I have already taught."
"On the other hand, if they are not bound by commitments then they should erect a site of enlightenment and institute an intensive retreat. A long-term retreat should be one hundred and twenty days. A medium-length retreat should be one hundred days. A short one, eighty days, sitting quietly in a pure environment. If the Buddha is present, then you can directly correct your thoughts. If he has already passed away, then set up an image of him, and letting your mind abide in the mental picture of this image, you can bring about correct mindfulness, just the same as when he was here. After hanging up the banners and flowers, go through a period of three weeks, making obeisance to the names of all the Buddhas in the ten directions repenting and confessing all of your sins. Passing through three weeks with your thoughts focused, you will encounter excellent states of consciousness, and your mind will attain pliancy."
"If you pass through to the beginning of the retreat, then for three months you will abide in stillness, and carry out the pure quiet sitting of the bodhisattvas, with your mind free from the designs of the direct disciples and from involvements with other practitioners."
"When you come to the day of the retreat, in front of the Buddha, say this: "I, bhiksu/bhiksuni/upasaka/upasika so-and-so, would board the vehicle of the bodhisattvas, cultivate their practices of cessation-extinction and enter with them into their abiding in the pure marks of the real. I take great Perfect Enlightenment as my temple, with body and mind dwelling peacefully in the wisdom of the equality of the nature. Since the self-nature of nirvana is not restricted in any way, I now respectfully pray that I may not abide in the views of the direct disciples. And I will abide for three months of quiet retreat with the tathāgatas and great bodhisattvas of the ten directions. Since I will be cultivating the bodhisattva's great causes and conditions of unsurpassed marvelous enlightenment, I will not be constrained by the limitations of the other practitioners." "
"Good sons, this is called 'the bodhisattvas' exemplifying silent retreat.' After passing through the three terms, you can practice anywhere without obstruction."[Chinese Source Text]
善男子、若彼末世修行衆生求菩薩道入三期者、非彼所聞一 切境界、終不可取。善男子、若諸菩薩修奢摩他、先取至靜不起思念。靜極便覺。 如是初靜、從於一身至一世界覺亦如是。善男子、若覺遍滿一世界者皆悉能知。百 萬世界亦復如是。非彼所聞一切境界、終不可取。善男子、若諸衆生修三摩鉢提、 先當憶想十方如來十方世界一切菩薩。依種種門漸次修行勤苦三昧廣發大願自熏成 種。非彼諸聞一切境界修不可取。
"Good sons, if, when these practicing sentient beings of the degenerate age who seek the Way of the bodhisattvas enter the three meditation terms, they experience meditational states which are different from those outlined in this sutra, they should not attach to them."
"Good sons, those sentient beings who will practice śamatha must first grasp perfect quiescence, not arising any cogitation. Quiescence taken to its furthest limit results directly in enlightenment. If you can have this kind of initial quiescence, then proceeding from one body, enlightenment will extend like this throughout a whole world. Good Sons, when enlightenment fully pervades a whole world, if there is one sentient being within that world who arises a single thought, all, without exception will know it. The same is true in the case of a hundred thousand worlds. If it is not one of the meditational states about which you were previously instructed, you should not attach to it."
"Good sons, those sentient beings who want to practice samapatti should first become mindful of all the tathāgatas of the ten directions and all the bodhisattvas of all the worlds in the ten directions. Depending on their various methods they should grow by degrees though practice, struggling against suffering towards samādhi, broadly manifesting the great vow to save sentient beings, the perfumation of which creates seeds. But if it is not one of the states about which you were previously instructed, you should not attach to it."[Chinese Source Text]
善男子、若諸衆生修於禪那先取數門、心中了知生住滅念。 分齊頭數、如是周遍四威儀中。分別念數無不了知、漸次增進乃至得知百千世界一 滴之雨。猶如目覩所受用物。非彼所聞一切境界終不可取。是名三顴初首方便。
"Good sons, if these sentient beings want to practice dhyāna, they must first utilize the method of breath observance, and in the depths of their mind become fully aware of the arising, abiding and cessation of each thought. They must be clear in their discrimination of the breath count and practice it pervasively during each one of the four postures. There is no limit to how far this mindfulness of the discrimination of breaths can penetrate, as one can gradually advance to the point where he can be aware, within the domain of one hundred thousands worlds, of the falling of a single drop of rain, as if it were an object presented directly to him. But if it is really not one of the states of mind about which you were previously instructed, then afterwards you should not attach to it. These are called the introductory expedients of the three meditations."[Chinese Source Text]
"If sentient beings pervasively practice these three kinds of meditation, and keep working diligently to advance, they will be called 'tathāgatas appearing in the world.' "
"If subsequent sentient beings of the degenerate age of dull faculties desire in their hearts to attain the Way, but somehow always fall short of their goal, it is because of karmic hindrances from the past. They must strive for penance and confession and continuously re-arise their hopes. They must first sever love and hatred, jealousy, envy, flattery and calumny and strive for the unsurpassed state of mind. Since the three types of meditation are all the investigation of the same single matter, if one meditation doesn't work, try again with one of the others. Don't let your mind dissipate, and gradually strive for actualization."
Then the World Honored One, wanting to restate the gist of this doctrine, spoke a verse. He said:
Perfect Enlightenment, you should know
That all sentient beings
Who want to seek the unsurpassed
Must, at the outset of the three retreats
Repent of, and admit their beginningless actions
For a period of three weeks;
Thereupon they will have correct thought.
But if they do not experience the states as they have been taught
They should not grasp them.
In śamatha, perfect quiescence;
In samapatti, correct mindfulness;
In dhyāna, clear observance of the breath.
These are called "the three purifying meditations."
Those who diligently practice
Are called "Buddhas appearing in the world."
Those of dull faculties who cannot bring this into effect
Must continuously strive at repentance
Of their beginningless crimes.
When all hindrances are extinguished
The Buddha-state appears before your eyes.
12. Most Excellent of Worthies Bodhisattva 賢善首菩薩[Chinese Source Text]
於是賢善首菩薩在大衆中、卽從座起。頂禮佛足、右繞三匝。 長跪叉手而白佛言: 大悲世尊。廣爲我等及末世衆生開示如是不思議事。世尊、此 大衆教名字何等? 云何奉持? 衆生修習得何功德? 云何使我護持經人流布此教? 至於何地? 作是語已、五體投地。如是三請、終而復始。
Then the bodhisattva Most Excellent of Worthies arose from his seat in the great assembly. He bowed his head to the feet of the Buddha and circumambulated him three times to the right. He then knelt down with his hands clasped and addressed the Buddha, saying: "Greatly Compassionate World Honored One. You have revealed extensively for us and sentient beings of the degenerate age about this inconceivable matter. World Honored One: What names are applied to this Mahayana teaching? How should it be cleaved to and practiced? What kinds of merits will be obtained by sentient beings who practice according to it? How shall those who cleave to and practice it be protected? And to what lands should this teaching be propagated?" Having said this, he prostrated fully to the ground. He repeated this question three times in succession.[Chinese Source Text]
爾時世尊吿賢善首菩薩言: 善哉、善哉。善男子、汝等乃能 爲諸菩薩及末世衆生問於如來如是經教功德名字。汝今諦聽、當爲汝說。時賢善首 菩薩奉教歡喜。及諸大衆默然而聽。
Then the World Honored One, addressing the bodhisattva Most Excellent of Worthies said: "Excellent! Excellent! Good Son, you have asked well for the bodhisattvas and sentient beings of the degenerate age about the merits and names of this sutra teaching. Now listen well, and I shall explain for you." The bodhisattva Most Excellent of Worthies received this instruction with great joy. Those in the great assembly became silent and listened.[Chinese Source Text]
善男子、是經百千萬億恆河沙諸佛所說。三世如來之所守護。 十方菩薩之所歸依。十二部經淸淨眼目。是經名大方廣圓覺陀羅尼。亦名修多羅了 義。亦名祕密王三昧。亦名如來決定境界。亦名如來藏自性差別。汝等奉持。善男 子、是經唯顯如來境界。唯佛如來能盡宣說。若諸菩薩及末世衆生依此修行漸次增 進、至於佛地。
"Good sons, this scripture is that which is taught by billions upon billions of countless buddhas; it is that which is protected by the tathāgatas of the three times; it is that which is relied upon by the bodhisattvas of the ten directions; it is the pure eye of the twelve divisions of the scriptures. This scripture is called The Great Curative Extensive Perfect Enlightenment Dhāraṇī; it is also called The Sutra of the Fully Revealed Meaning; it is also called The Mysterious Royal Samādhi; it is also called the Tathāgata's Realm of Full Decisiveness; it is also called The Distinction of the Self-Nature of the Tathāgatagarbha. You should cleave to it and practice according to it."
"Good sons, this scripture expresses nothing but the realm of the Tathāgatas, and only the Buddha-Tathāgatas are able to fully explain it. If the bodhisattvas and sentient beings of the degenerate age practice according to this sutra, they will gradually advance to Buddhahood."[Chinese Source Text]
"Good sons, this scripture is called the Sudden Teaching of the Mahayana, and sentient beings with the capacity for the sudden will awaken through it. But it also embraces the gradual practice of all sentient beings. It is like a great body of water which does not deny the entrance of any small stream; and mosquitoes and horseflies, as well as asuras may drink its water and take their fill."
"Good sons, say for instance there were a man, who with the purest of motivations, gathered the seven jewels in a quantity sufficient to fill three thousand galaxies, and then gave them all away for charity. This man's merit would not be equal to that of a man who heard the name of this scripture and understood the meaning of a single passage."[Chinese Source Text]
善男子、假使有人純以七寶積滿三千大千世界以用布施。不如有人聞此經名及一句義。善男子、假使有人教百恆河沙衆生得阿羅漢果｡ 不如有人宣說此經、分別半偈。善男子、若復有人聞此經名信心不惑。當知是人非於一佛二佛種諸福慧、如是乃至盡恆河沙一切佛所種諸善根、聞此經教。汝善男子、當護末世是修行者、無令惡魔及諸外道惱其身心了生退屈。 爾時世尊、欲重宣此義而說偈言。
"Good Sons, say for example there was a man who taught sentient beings as many as a hundred times the amount of the grains of sand in the Ganges river such that they all attained the level of arhat. This man's merit would not be equal so someone who explicated a half of a gatha of this scripture. If there is any person who hears the name of this sutra and believes in it fully without a shadow of a doubt, then you can know that this person has not only sown the seeds of blessings and wisdom with one buddha or two buddhas, but has cultivated his roots of goodness with countless myriads of buddhas, listening to this sutra-teaching."
"Good sons, you should protect sentient beings of the degenerate age who are practicing this, and not let evil spirits and heretics upset their thoughts or cause them to lose heart." Then the World Honored One, wanting to restate the gist of this, spoke a verse. He said:
Most Excellent of Worthies, you should know
This scripture is that which all buddhas teach
And that which all tathāgatas well protect
It is the eye of the twelve divisions.
It is called
The Great Curative Extensive Perfect Enlightenment Dhāraṇī
It is the expression of the realm of the Tathāgata
Those who practice according to it
Gradually advance to Buddhahood.
It is like an ocean which accepts all rivers
And gives all of the thirsty their fill.
If there were a person who donated the seven jewels
Enough to fill three thousand galaxies
It would not be equal to hearing this sutra.
If someone transformed countless beings
Such that they all reached arhatship
It would not be equal to the explication of half a gatha.
You must all, for the later generations
Protect those who give and receive this teaching
And not allow them to backslide.[Chinese Source Text]
爾時會中有火首金剛、摧碎金剛、尼藍婆金剛等八萬金剛幷 其眷屬卽從座起。頂禮佛足右繞三匝而白佛言: 世尊。若後末世一切衆生有能持此 決定大乘、我當守護如護眼目、乃至道場所修行處。我等金剛自領徒衆晨夕守護、 令不退轉。其家乃至永無災障疫病銷滅。財寶豐足常不乏少。爾時大梵王、二十八 天王、幷首彌山王、護國天王等卽從座起。頂禮佛足右繞三匝而白佛言: 世尊。我 亦守護是持經者。常令安隱心不退轉。爾時有大力鬼王名吉槃茶與十萬鬼王卽從座 起。頂禮佛足右繞三匝而白佛言: 我亦守護是持經人朝夕侍衞、令不退屈。其人所 居一由旬內若有鬼神侵其境界我等使其碎如微塵。佛說此經已一切菩薩天龍鬼神八 部眷屬及所天王梵王等一切大衆、聞佛所說皆大歡喜信受奉行。
Then, from the midst of the great assembly, arose Fiery-haired Vajra-warriors, Pulverizing Vajra-warriors, Blue Vajra-warriors—altogether eighty thousand Vajra-warriors together with their retinues. They got up from their seats, bowed their heads to the feet of the Buddha, and circumambulated him three times to the right. Then they addressed the Buddha, saying "World Honored One, if sentient beings of the degenerate age are able to cleave to this Scripture of Mahayana Decisiveness, we shall protect them, as if protecting our own eyes and we shall protect as well the places where they carry out their practice. We Vajra-warriors shall guide these people, protecting them morning and night, such that they do not retrogress. Their households shall never suffer from calamity; sickness shall be eradicated; their material possessions shall be abundant and they shall never suffer from poverty."
Then the Great Brahma Kings, the Kings of the Twenty-Eight Heavens, together with the Kings of Mt. Sumeru and the Nation-Protecting Kings, arose from their seats. They bowed their heads to the Buddha's feet, circumambulated him to the right, and addressed him, saying: "World Honored One, we shall also protect those who cleave to this scripture. We shall bring them tranquillity and not allow them to retrogress."
Then a Great Mighty Demon King, whose name was Kumbhanda, together with a hundred thousand Demon Kings, arose from his seat. He bowed his head to the Buddha's feet and circumambulated him three times to the right. He addressed the Buddha, saying: "I shall also protect those who cleave to this scripture by guarding them morning and night and not letting them retrogress. If an evil spirit should dare to approach within the area of ten miles to the place of the practitioner's abode, I shall smash him to atoms."
The Buddha having finished his preaching of this scripture, the bodhisattvas, the devas, nagas, raksas and the rest of the eight kinds of spiritual beings along with their retinues, as well as the Heavenly Kings, Brahma Kings and the rest of the great assembly, having heard what the Buddha taught, were all filled with great joy. They believed, embodied and practiced.
1. I have not found any places where I feel I have mistranslated the text, but there is some terminology that I would probably change on the basis of my deepened studies of Buddhist soteriology in the interim.[back]
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